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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
 
 
Form 10-K
 
     
þ
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2008
    or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
    For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission File Number 000-27969
 
 
 
 
Immersion Corporation
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
Delaware
  94-3180138
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (IRS Employer
Identification No.)
 
801 Fox Lane
San Jose, California 95131
(Address of principal executive offices, zip code)

(408) 467-1900
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of Each Class
 
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
 
Common Stock, $0.001 par value
  The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes o     No þ
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes þ     No o
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
 
     
Large accelerated filer o
  Accelerated filer þ
Non-accelerated filer o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  Smaller reporting company o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes o     No þ
 
The aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant on June 30, 2008, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was $350,475,801 (based on the closing sales price of the registrant’s common stock on that date). Shares of the registrant’s common stock held by each officer and director and each person whom owns 5% or more of the outstanding common stock of the registrant have been excluded in that such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes. Number of shares of common stock outstanding at February 23, 2009: 27,945,484.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of the definitive Proxy Statement for the 2009 Annual Meeting are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
 


 

 
IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
2008 FORM 10-K ANNUAL REPORT
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
                 
        Page
 
      Business     3  
      Risk Factors     13  
      Unresolved Staff Comments     28  
      Properties     28  
      Legal Proceedings     28  
      Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders     30  
 
      Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities     31  
      Selected Financial Data     32  
      Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations     32  
      Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk     50  
      Financial Statements and Supplementary Data     51  
      Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure     85  
      Controls and Procedures     85  
      Other Information     86  
 
      Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance     86  
      Executive Compensation     86  
      Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters     87  
      Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence     87  
      Principal Accounting Fees and Services     87  
 
      Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules     87  
    91  
Exhibits
       
 EX-21.1
 EX-23.1
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-32.2


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Forward-looking Statements
 
In addition to historical information this Annual Report on Form 10-K includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“the Exchange Act”). The forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “will,” and other similar expressions. However, these words are not the only way we identify forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements which refer to expectations, projections, or other characterizations of future events, or circumstances, are forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including those set forth below in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” “Risk Factors” and those described elsewhere in this report , and those described in our other reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report, and we undertake no obligation to update these forward-looking statements after the filing of this report. You are urged to review carefully and consider our various disclosures in this report and in our other reports publicly disclosed or filed with the SEC that attempt to advise you of the risks and factors that may affect our business.
 
PART I
 
Item 1.   Business
 
Overview
 
Immersion Corporation was incorporated in 1993 in California and reincorporated in Delaware in 1999. We consummated our initial public offering on November 12, 1999. Our common stock trades on the NASDAQ Global Market under the symbol IMMR. Immersion Corporation is a leading provider of haptic technologies that allow people to use their sense of touch more fully when operating a wide variety of digital devices. To achieve this heightened interactivity, we develop and manufacture or license a wide range of hardware and software technologies and products. While we believe that our technologies are broadly applicable, we are currently focusing our marketing and business development activities on the following target application areas: automotive, consumer electronics, gaming, and commercial and industrial devices and controls; medical simulation; and mobile communications. We manage these application areas under two operating and reportable segments: 1) the Touch Line of Business and 2) the Medical Line of Business. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” as well as the notes to the consolidated financial statements for revenue information for these segments for the past three years.
 
In some markets, such as video console gaming, consumer electronics, mobile phones, and automotive controls, we license our technologies to manufacturers who use them in products sold under their own brand names. In other markets, such as medical simulation, we sell products manufactured under our own brand name through direct sales to end users, distributors, OEMs, or value-added resellers. From time to time, we also engage in development projects for third parties.
 
Our objective is to drive adoption of our touch technologies across markets and applications to improve the user experience with digital devices and systems. We and our wholly owned subsidiaries hold more than 700 issued or pending patents in the U.S. and other countries, covering various aspects of hardware and software technologies.
 
Haptics and Its Benefits
 
In the world of computers, consumer electronics, and digital devices and controls, meaningful haptic (touch) information is limited or missing. For example, when dialing a number or entering text on a conventional touchscreen, we feel only the touchscreen surface, without the subtle, yet confirming sensation we expect from mechanical switches and keyboards.
 
To supply richer, more meaningful haptic feedback — also known as force feedback, touch feedback, or tactile feedback — electronic input/output devices can be made to generate physical forces. Our programmable haptic


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technologies embedded in many types of devices can give users physical sensations appropriate to the situation. Users can feel as though they are interacting with different textures and mass, compliant springs, solid barriers, deep or shallow detents. They can feel the force or resistance as they push a virtual button, scroll through a list, or encounter the end of a menu. In a video or mobile game, users can feel the gun recoil, the engine rev, or the crack of the bat meeting the ball. When simulating the placement of cardiac pacing leads, a user can feel the forces that would be encountered when navigating the leads through a beating heart, providing a more realistic experience of performing this procedure. These forces are created by actuators, such as motors, which are built into devices such as joysticks, steering wheels, gamepads, personal music players, mobile phones, and medical training simulators. Actuators can also be designed into devices used in automotive, industrial, medical, or retail kiosk and point-of-sale systems, such as digital switches, rotary controls, touchscreens, and touch surfaces.
 
We believe the programmability of our haptic products is a key differentiator over purely electro-mechanical systems and can drive the further adoption of cost effective and more reliable digital devices. A programmable device can supply a tactile response appropriate to the context of operation for systems and devices of many types. These tactile cues can help users operate more intuitively or realize a more enjoyable or natural experience. Used in combination with sight and sound cues, haptic feedback adds a compelling, engaging, meaningful multimodal aspect to the user interface. Our haptic products and technologies can also add a tactile quality to interactions that have been devoid of tactile confirmation, such as when using a touchpad or touchscreen. Independent research now shows that the confirmation and navigational cues obtained by programmable haptics can aid in performance and accuracy and increase user satisfaction. The addition of programmable haptics can help in the conversion from purely mechanical rotary controls to digital devices or from a mechanical keyboard, switch, or button interface to an electronic touchscreen.
 
Programmability also supplies more flexibility in the types of responses that are possible, in upgradeability, in consistent performance that will not degrade over time, and in the potential for personalized settings. Multiple mechanical controls can be consolidated into one versatile programmable control that can save space and improve ergonomics. Conversely, one programmable control device can be implemented as many different types of controls with context-appropriate touch feedback, which can simplify inventory.
 
Our Solutions
 
Our goal is to improve the way people interact with digital devices by engaging their sense of touch. Our core competencies include our understanding of how interactions should feel and our knowledge of how to use technology to achieve that feeling. Our strength in both of these areas has resulted in many novel applications.
 
We believe that our touch-enabled products and technologies give users a more complete, intuitive, enjoyable, and realistic experience. Our patented designs include software elements such as real-time software algorithms and authoring tools, and specialized hardware elements, such as motors, sensors, transmissions, and control electronics. Together, these software and hardware elements enable tactile sensations that are context-appropriate within the application.
 
We have developed haptic systems for many types of hardware input/output devices such as gamepads, joysticks, mobile phones, rotary controls, touchscreens, and flexible and rigid endoscopy devices for medical simulations.
 
We have developed many mechanisms to convey forces to the user’s hands or body. These include vibro-tactile actuators, direct-, belt-, gear-, or cable-driven mechanisms and other proprietary devices that supply textures and vibration, resistance, and damping forces to the user.
 
To develop our real-time electronic actuator controllers, we had to address challenges such as size, accuracy, resolution, frequency, latency requirements, power consumption, and cost. Our control solutions include both closed-loop and open-loop control schemes. In closed-loop control, the firmware reads inputs from the input/output devices, and then calculates and applies the output forces in real time based on the input data. In open-loop control, a triggering event will activate the firmware to calculate and send the output signal to the actuator in real time.
 
We have developed many software solutions for various operating systems and computing platforms including Windows-based and Apple personal computers, automotive, and mobile handset operating systems. Our inventions


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include control algorithms for efficiently driving relevant families of actuators (such as spinning mass actuators, linear actuators, and piezo-electric systems) as well as several generations of authoring tools for creating, visualizing, modifying, archiving, and experiencing haptic feedback.
 
Licensed Solutions
 
In some markets, such as video console gaming, consumer electronics, mobile phones, and automotive controls, we license our technologies to original equipment manufacturers (OEM) or their suppliers who include them in products sold under their own brand names.
 
We offer our expertise to our licensees to help them design and integrate touch effects into their products. This expertise includes turn-key engineering and integration services, design kits for prototyping, authoring tools, application programming interfaces, and the development of hardware and software technologies that are compatible with industry standards.
 
Turn-key Engineering and Integration Services — We offer engineering assistance including technical and design assistance and integration services that allow our licensees to incorporate our touch-enabling products and technologies into their products at a reasonable cost and in a shortened time frame. This allows them to get to market quickly by using our years of haptic development and solution deployment expertise. We offer product development solutions including product software libraries, design, prototype creation, technology transfer, actuator selection, component sourcing, development/integration kits, sample source code, comprehensive documentation, and other engineering services. In addition, we help ensure a quality end-user experience by offering testing and certification services to a number of licensees.
 
Design Kits for Prototyping — We offer several design kits for customers to use for technology evaluation, internal evaluation, usability testing, and focus group testing. The kits include components and documentation that designers, engineers, and system integrators need for prototyping TouchSense touch feedback into an existing or sample product.
 
Authoring Tools — We license authoring tools that enable haptic designers and software developers to quickly design and incorporate custom touch feedback into their own applications. Authoring tools allow designers to create, modify, experience, and save or restore haptic effects for a haptic device. The tools are the equivalent of a computer-aided design application for haptics. Our authoring tools support vibro-tactile haptic devices (such as mobile phones, touchscreens, and vibro-tactile gaming peripherals), as well as kinesthetic haptic devices (such as rotary devices, 2D devices, and joysticks). Various haptic effect parameters can be defined and modified, and the result immediately experienced. Our authoring tools run on mainstream operating systems such as Microsoft Windows.
 
Application Programming Interfaces (“APIs”) — Our APIs provide haptic-effect generation capability. This allows designers and software programmers to focus on adding haptic effects to their applications instead of struggling with the mechanics of programming real-time algorithms and handling communications between computers and devices. Some of our haptic APIs are device independent (for example, they work with scroll wheels, rotary knobs, 2D joysticks, and other devices) to allow flexibility and reusability. Others are crafted to meet the needs of a particular customer or industry.
 
Compatible with Industry Standards — We have designed our hardware and software technologies for our licensees to be compatible with industry hardware and software standards. Our technologies operate across multiple platforms and comply with such standards as Microsoft’s entertainment application programming interface, DirectX, and a standard communications interface, Universal Serial Bus (“USB”). More generally, our software driver and API technology has been designed to be easily ported to a variety of operating systems including Windows, Windows CE, Mac OS X, BREW/REX (from QUALCOMM), Java (J2SE), various Linux platforms including Android, and VxWorks.


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Manufactured Product Solutions
 
We produce our products using both contracted and in-house manufacturing. We manufacture and sell some of our products under the Immersion brand name through a combination of direct sales, distributors, and value-added resellers. These products include:
 
•  medical and surgical simulation systems used for training medical professionals in minimally invasive medical and surgical procedures including endoscopy, laparoscopy, and endovascular;
 
•  components used in our haptic touchscreen and touch surface solutions;
 
•  programmable rotary control technology and reference design for operating a wide range of devices; and
 
•  electronic control boards for wheels and joysticks used in arcade games, research, and industrial applications.
 
We also manufacture and private-label some products for customers under their own brand names. In addition, we may resell another manufacturer’s product into our customer base such as certain types of medical simulators.
 
On November 17, 2008, we announced our intent to divest our line of 3D products in 2009. These products include our:
 
•  MicroScribe® digitizers;
 
•  3D interaction product line; and
 
•  SoftMouse® 3D positioning device.
 
Touch Line of Business
 
Products and Markets
 
We initially licensed our intellectual property for touch-enabling technologies for consumer gaming peripherals in 1996 and extended beyond gaming to other applications of our haptics-related products and services.
 
Gaming Devices — We have licensed our TouchSense intellectual property to Microsoft for use in its gaming products, to Apple Computer for use in its operating system, and to Sony Computer Entertainment for use in its legacy and current PlayStation console gaming products. We have also licensed our TouchSense intellectual property to over a dozen gaming peripheral manufacturers and distributors, including Logitech and Mad Catz, to bring haptic technology to PC platforms including both Microsoft Windows and Apple operating systems, as well as to video game consoles.
 
In the video game console peripheral market, we have licensed our intellectual property for use in hundreds of spinning mass tactile feedback devices and force feedback devices such as steering wheels and joysticks to various manufacturers including dreamGear, Gemini, Griffin, Hori, i-CON, Intec, Katana, Logitech, Mad Catz, Microsoft, NYKO, Performance Designed Products (“PDP”) (formerly Electro Source LLC), Radica, and Sony. These products are designed to work with one or more video game consoles including the Xbox and Xbox 360 from Microsoft; the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, and PlayStation 3 from Sony; and the N64, GameCube, and Wii from Nintendo. Currently, products sold to consumers using TouchSense technology include PC joysticks, steering wheels, and gamepads from various licensees.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively 23%, 21%, and 18% of our total revenues were generated from PC and console gaming revenues.
 
In the arcade entertainment market, our products include steering wheel and joystick control electronics that provide industrial strength and quality force feedback that enable very realistic simulations.
 
In the casino and bar-top amusement market, we signed an agreement with 3M Touch Systems in 2005 that allows manufacture and distribution of its MicroTouch touch screens with our TouchSense technology. 3M Touch Systems and seven system integrators demonstrated this technology in pre-production touchscreen monitors at the 2008 Global Gaming Expo.


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Mobile Communications and Portable Devices — We have developed TouchSense solutions for the mobile phone market and a variety of portable devices.
 
TouchSense components include technologies for haptic touchscreens and programmable haptic rotary controls. In early 2009, Samsung announced its new P3 personal media player, currently scheduled to ship in the first half of 2009, with Immersion haptic feedback technology for touchscreen interactions. In 2008 Cue Acoustics announced and began shipping a premium AM/FM radio and iPod docking station that includes a TouchSense rotary control module as its primary control mechanism. In 2007, CTT-Net of Korea launched the world’s first personal navigation devices (“PNDs”) to use Immersion’s TouchSense technology to provide tactile feedback for touchscreen interactions in a global positioning system (“GPS”). We intend to expand applications for TouchSense technologies into a broader range of portable devices, including remote controls for home entertainment systems, medical diagnostic and therapeutic equipment, test and measurement equipment, portable terminals, game devices, and media players.
 
The TouchSense Solution for Mobile Phones for handset OEMs, operators, and application developers includes a TouchSense Player, a lightweight and powerful vibration playback system that is embedded in the phone, and a TouchSense software toolkit, including a PC-based composition tool for creating haptic effects for inclusion in content and applications. Haptic effects can be used in alerts, e-mail, games, messages, ringtones, touchscreen interactions, and other user interface features to add information or identification, signal status or message arrival, and heighten interest or fun. With a TouchSense-enabled phone, users can send and receive a wide range of vibro-tactile haptic effects independently from or in synchronicity with audio, video, and application program content.
 
Our licensees currently include the top three makers of mobile phones by volume in the world: Nokia, Samsung, and LG Electronics plus others such as Pantech Co., Ltd. and KTF Technologies Inc. In 2008, approximately 33 million handsets with TouchSense technology were shipped by our licensees, a nearly six-fold increase over 2007. Since its launch in the first handset in 2005, our TouchSense technology has shipped in over 42 million handsets.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively 13%, 7%, and 1% of our total revenues were generated from mobile communication revenues.
 
Automotive — We have developed TouchSense technology for rotary controls, touchscreens, and touch surfaces appropriate for use in automobiles. TouchSense rotary technology can consolidate the control of multiple systems into a single module that provides the appropriate feel for each function. This allows the driver convenient access to many systems and supplies context-sensitive cues for operation. TouchSense touchscreen and touch surface technology provides tactile feedback for an otherwise unresponsive surface such as an all digital switch or touchscreen. Programmable haptic touchscreen, touch surface, and rotary controls of many types can be used to provide a space-saving, aesthetic look and a confirming response for the driver that can help reduce glance time.
 
We have also conducted various funded development efforts and provided tools and evaluation licenses to several major automobile manufacturers and suppliers interested in touch-enabled automobile controls.
 
We have licensed our TouchSense rotary technology for use in vehicle controls since 2002. Siemens VDO Automotive (now Continental) has licensed our technology for use in the high-end Volkswagen Phaeton sedan and Bentley cars. ALPS Electric, also a licensee, has produced a haptic rotary control that has been included in the Mercedes-Benz S — Class sedan starting in the fall of 2005. ALPS also produced a two-dimensional haptic control module called the Remote Touch controller in the Lexus RX 350 and 450h. These 2010 Lexus models were announced in November 2008 and launched in the U.S. in February 2009. Other licensees of TouchSense technology in the automotive industry include: Methode Electronics, Inc., a global designer and manufacturer of electronic component and subsystem devices; Visteon Corporation, a leading global automotive supplier that designs, engineers, and manufactures innovative climate, interior, electronic and lighting products for vehicle manufacturers; Volkswagen, Europe’s largest automaker; and SMK Corporation of Tokyo, a global manufacturer of electromechanical components. Since its launch in the first vehicle in 2001 our TouchSense technology has shipped in over 2.4 million vehicles.


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For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively 7%, 10%, and 9% of our total revenues were automotive revenues.
 
3D and Mechanical CAD Design — During 2008 we sold three-dimensional and mechanical computer-aided design products that allow users to create three-dimensional computer models directly from physical objects and also to precisely measure manufactured parts. We also manufactured and sold the CyberGlove system, a fully instrumented glove that measures the movement of a user’s hand and, used in conjunction with our software, maps the movement to a graphical hand on the computer screen. In addition, we manufactured and sold specialized products such as computer peripherals that incorporate advanced computer peripheral technologies. On November 17, 2008, we announced our intent to divest these lines of 3D digitizing products in 2009. On February 24, 2009, we sold the line of peripheral products for an immaterial amount.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively 13%, 14%, and 17% of our total revenues were generated from 3D and mechanical CAD design revenues.
 
Sales and Distribution
 
Sales of our products generally do not experience seasonal fluctuations, except that royalties from gaming peripherals, which tend to be higher during the year-end holiday shopping season. However, there may be variations in the timing of revenue recognition from development contracts depending on numerous factors including contract milestones and operations scheduling. Our products typically incorporate readily available commercial components.
 
In the PC and video console gaming, consumer electronics, mobility, and automotive markets, we establish licensing relationships through our business development efforts.
 
In mobility, sales relationships must be established with operators, handset manufacturers, and content developers worldwide. We have signed license agreements with mobile handset manufacturers for the incorporation of TouchSense technology into certain mobile phone handsets. We have established relationships with CDMA platform developer QUALCOMM, Incorporated and with smartphone operating system developer Symbian, Ltd.
 
We employ a direct sales force in the United States, Europe, and Asia to license our TouchSense software products. In gaming, our sales force is also augmented through co-marketing arrangements. As part of our strategy to increase our visibility and promote our touch-enabling technology, our consumer-products license agreements may require our licensees to display the TouchSense technology logo on their end products.
 
We sell our touchscreen and touch surface products to OEMs and system integrators using a worldwide direct sales force. In addition, the technology is licensed to large system integrators and OEMs in automotive and other markets.
 
In the automotive market, we use a worldwide direct sales force to work with vehicle manufacturers and component suppliers. We have licensed our technology to leading automotive component suppliers including Methode, ALPS Electric, SMK, and Visteon as part of our strategy to speed adoption of our TouchSense technologies across the automotive industry.
 
Competition
 
With respect to touch-enabled consumer products, we are aware of several companies that claim to possess touch feedback technology applicable to the consumer market. In addition, we are aware of several companies that currently market unlicensed touch feedback products in consumer markets.
 
In the Touch line of business, the principal competitive factors are the strength of the intellectual property underlying the technology, the technological expertise and design innovation and the use, reliability and cost-effectiveness of the products. We believe we compete favorably in all these areas.
 
Several companies also currently market touch feedback products that are competitive to ours in non-consumer markets. These companies could also shift their focus to the consumer market. In addition, our licensees or other companies may develop products that compete with products employing our touch-enabling technologies, but are


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based on alternative technologies, or develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technologies, duplicate our technologies, or design around our patents. Many of our licensees, including Microsoft, LG Electronics, Logitech, Nokia, Samsung, and others have greater financial and technical resources upon which to draw in attempting to develop computer peripheral or mobile phone technologies that do not make use of our touch-enabling technologies.
 
For licensed applications, our competitive position is partially dependent on the competitive positions of our licensees that pay a license and/or royalty. Our licensees’ markets are highly competitive. We believe that the principal competitive factors in our licensees’ markets include price, performance, user-centric design, ease-of-use, quality, and timeliness of products, as well as the manufacturer’s responsiveness, capacity, technical abilities, established customer relationships, retail shelf space, advertising, promotional programs, and brand recognition. Touch-related benefits in some of these markets may be viewed simply as enhancements and compete with nontouch-enabled technologies.
 
Medical Line of Business
 
Products and Markets
 
We have developed numerous simulation technologies that can be used for medical training and testing. By enabling a medical simulator to more fully engage users’ sense of touch, our technologies can support realistic simulations that are effective in teaching medical students, doctors, and other health professionals what it feels like to perform a given procedure. The use of our simulators allows these professionals to perfect their practice in an environment that poses no risks to patients, where mistakes have no dire consequences, and where animal or cadaver use is unnecessary.
 
In addition, organizations wanting to train customers or sales staff on medical procedures and on the use of new tools and medical devices engage us to develop special simulators. Examples of projects we have completed include simulation of venous access, minimally invasive vein harvesting, hysteroscopy, and aortic valve and pacemaker lead placement.
 
We have four medical simulation product lines: the Virtual IV system, which simulates needle-based procedures such as intravenous catheterization and phlebotomy; the Endoscopy AccuTouch® System, which simulates endoscopic procedures, including bronchoscopy and lower and upper GI procedures; the CathLabVR System, which simulates endovascular interventions including cardiac pacing, angiography, angioplasty, and carotid and coronary stent placement; and the LapVR System, which simulates minimally invasive procedures involving abdominal and pelvic organs. In addition, we sell an arthroscopy surgical simulator for certain arthroscopic surgical procedures on knees and shoulders based on GMV’s insightArthroVR system.
 
These systems are used for training and educational purposes to enable health professionals to feel simulated forces that they would experience during actual medical procedures, such as encountering an arterial obstruction. The systems are designed to provide a realistic training environment augmented by real-time graphics that include anatomic models developed from actual patient data and high-fidelity sound that includes simulated patient responses.
 
All our products are comprised of a hardware system, an interface device, and software modules that include several cases of increasing difficulty, allowing users to develop their skills by experiencing a broad range of pathologies in differing anatomical conditions.
 
We design each product line to maximize the number of procedures that can be simulated with minimal additional customer hardware investment. These systems then enable potential additional sales of software to the installed base of hardware systems. We believe the relatively low price of our software modules provides an opportunity for repeat sales. We currently have over 25 various software modules available that replicate such medical procedures as intravenous catheterization, laparoscopy, bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, cardiac pacing, and carotid and coronary angioplasty.


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Sales and Distribution
 
Sales of these products may experience seasonal fluctuations related to teaching hospitals’ summer residency programs. In addition, there may be variations in timing of revenue recognition from the sale of systems with upgrade rights and from development contracts. The latter may depend on numerous factors including contract milestones and timing of work performed against the contract.
 
With respect to medical simulation products, we employ a direct sales force and a network of international distributors that sell simulation systems to hospitals, colleges and universities, nursing schools, medical schools, emergency medical technician training programs, the military, medical device companies, and other organizations involved in procedural medicine. During 2008, we expanded our direct sales force in international markets and signed agreements with additional distributors for sales of our products in Europe, Latin America, and Asia Pacific regions.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively 41%, 44%, and 51%, of our total revenues were generated from medical revenues. For the years ended December 31, 2007 and 2006, respectively 11% and 18% of our total revenues consisted of licensing, product revenue, or development revenues from Medtronic.
 
Competition
 
There are several companies that currently sell simulation products to medical customers. Some simulators target the same minimally invasive procedures as do ours, while others sell mannequin-based systems for emergency response training. All simulators compete at some level for the same funding in medical institutions. Competitors include Simbionix USA Corporation, Mentice Corporation, Medical Education Technologies, Inc., and Medical Simulation Corporation. The principal competitive factors are the type of medical procedure being simulated, technological sophistication, and price. We believe we compete favorably on all three.
 
Research and Development
 
Our success depends on our timely ability to invent, improve, and reduce the cost of our technologies in a timely manner; to design and develop products to meet specifications based on research and our understanding of customer needs and expectations; and to collaborate with our licensees who are integrating our technologies into theirs.
 
Immersion Engineering — We have assembled a multi-disciplinary team of highly skilled engineers and scientists with the experience required for development of touch-enabling technology. The team’s experience includes skills related to mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, embedded systems and firmware, control techniques, software, quality control, haptic content design, and project and process management. For medical simulations, we have assembled a team of experts who are skilled at modeling the anatomy and physiology of various medical cases, creating graphical renderings, designing haptic feedback, and devising advanced control algorithms to simulate realistic navigation for medical procedures, such as through the body’s blood vessels.
 
Application Engineering & Technical Support — We may provide application engineering and technical support during integration of our touch-enabling technology into customer products. To facilitate the validation and adoption of touch-enabling technology, we have developed various design kits. These kits may include actuators, mounting suggestions, controller boards, software libraries, programming examples, and documentation. Our application engineers support customer use of these design kits through phone and e-mail technical support, onsite workshops, or other means. Our application engineers and technical support staff may also help install our products, train customers on their use, and provide ongoing product support, particularly for medical training simulators.
 
Licensee Interaction — To support the successful design and adoption of our technology in a licensee’s product, we make efforts to ensure clear communication with our customers. Typically, collaborative development efforts are structured using a four-phase approach including Product Definition, Concept Development, Detail Design, and Production Design phases. This four-phase design process is typically used for designing new systems when the solution is not known beforehand. Each phase includes formal design reviews and documentation. The continuation of our development effort is contingent upon successful completion and acceptance of prior phases.


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This method ensures that the customer’s financial risk is minimized and that project deliverables remain consistent with the goals established in the Product Definition phase.
 
Product Development Process — For product development, we follow a product design process based on ISO 9001 guidance. This process starts with the typical marketing and product requirement stages, and once approved, typically moves on to product planning and design, prototyping, then alpha, beta, and first-run production development and testing stages. All of these stages are typically supported by documentation procedures and tools, design reviews, revision management, and other quality criteria. This careful, step-wise process helps us meet our design and quality requirements and to help make business decisions to continue, modify, or end product development. For our medical simulation products, we may add stages to help ensure our systems are very realistic and closely emulate the real medical procedures.
 
Research — We have a dedicated team of experts in haptics and multimodal systems focused on investigating the next generations of haptic products for existing and new markets. The team has solid expertise in actuator design, mounting, control software, and human factors. We are also actively seeking and establishing worldwide research collaborations to reinforce our technical leadership and expand our innovative advancements. In addition, we have entered into numerous contracts with corporations and government agencies that help fund advanced research and development. Our government contracts permit us to retain ownership of the technology developed under the contracts, provided that we supply the applicable government agency a license to use the technology for noncommercial purposes.
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, research and development expenses were $12.6 million, $10.1 million, and $7.6 million respectively.
 
Intellectual Property
 
We believe that intellectual property protection is crucial to our business. We rely on a combination of patents, copyrights, trade secrets, trademarks, nondisclosure agreements with employees and third parties, licensing arrangements, and other contractual agreements with third parties to protect our intellectual property.
 
Our failure to obtain or maintain adequate protection for our intellectual property rights for any reason could hurt our competitive position. There is no guarantee that patents will be issued from the patent applications that we have filed or may file. Our issued patents may be challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, and claims of our patents may not be of sufficient scope or strength, or issued in the proper geographic regions, to provide meaningful protection or any commercial advantage.
 
We and our wholly owned subsidiaries hold more than 700 issued or pending patents in the U.S. and other countries that cover various aspects of our hardware and software technologies. Some of our U.S. patents have begun to expire starting in 2007.
 
Where we believe it is appropriate, we will engage the legal system to protect our intellectual property rights. For example, we filed a complaint against Sony Computer Entertainment, Inc. and Sony Computer Entertainment of America, Inc. (collectively “Sony Computer Entertainment”) on February 11, 2002 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District Court of California. On March 1, 2007, Immersion and Sony Computer Entertainment announced that the patent litigation at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit was concluded. See Item 3. “Legal Proceedings” for further details and discussion of the litigation proceedings and conclusion.
 
On April 16, 2008, we announced that our wholly owned subsidiary, Immersion Medical, Inc., filed lawsuits for patent infringement in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas against Mentice AB, Mentice SA, Simbionix USA Corp., and Simbionix Ltd. We intend to vigorously prosecute this lawsuit.
 
Investor Information
 
You can access financial and other information in the Investor Relations section of our Web site at www.immersion.com. We make available, on our Web site, free of charge, copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or


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furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act as soon as reasonably practicable after filing such material electronically or otherwise furnishing it to the SEC.
 
The charters of our audit committee, our compensation committee, and our nominating/corporate governance committee, and our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (including code of ethics provisions that apply to our principal executive officer, principal financial officer, controller, and senior financial officers) are also available at our Web site under “Corporate Governance.” These items are also available to any stockholder who requests them by calling +1 408.467.1900.
 
The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy, and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
 
Employees
 
As of December 31, 2008, we had 184 full-time and 2 part-time employees, including 68 in research and development, 54 in sales and marketing, and 64 in legal, finance, administration, and operations. As of that date, we also had 23 independent contractors. None of our employees are represented by a labor union, and we consider our employee relations to be positive.
 
Executive Officers
 
The following table sets forth information regarding our executive officers as of March 9, 2009.
 
             
Name
 
Position with the Company
 
Age
 
Clent Richardson
  President, Chief Executive Officer, and member of the Board of Directors     47  
Stephen Ambler
  Chief Financial Officer     49  
Daniel Chavez
  Senior Vice President and General Manager, Medical Line of Business     51  
G. Craig Vachon
  Senior Vice President and General Manager, Touch Line of Business     45  
 
Clent Richardson joined Immersion in April 2008 as President, Chief Executive Officer and member of the Board of Directors. From July 2007 through March 2008 Mr. Richardson was Chief Marketing Officer of TiVo, Inc., a provider of technology and services for digital video recorders. In April 2004, Mr. Richardson joined Nortel Networks Inc., a telecommunications networks and solutions company, as Vice President of Global Marketing, Enterprise Networks and was promoted to Chief Marketing Officer in October 2004 and served in that capacity through February 2006. From August 2003 to November 2003, Mr. Richardson was a management consultant for America Online, Inc., an internet services and media company. From April 2001 to March 2003, Mr. Richardson was Chief Sales and Marketing Officer and a member of the Board of Directors of T-Mobile U.K., a wireless phone company, and concurrently chairman of T-Mobile Retail, Ltd. Mr. Richardson served as Vice President, Worldwide Developer Relations from December 1997 to March 2001 and also as Vice President, Worldwide Solutions Marketing (from February 2000 to March 2001) for Apple Computer, Inc., a consumer electronics and software manufacturer. Prior to December 1997, Mr. Richardson served as Vice President, Marketing and Sales for Design Intelligence, Inc.; senior manager, Evangelism for Apple Computer, Inc.; Vice President and Director of Sales for Foster Ousley Conley, Inc.; and held several sales and management positions within GTE Corporation (now part of Verizon) over a five year period including Group Manager, Major Accounts in California for GTE Mobilenet, a subsidiary of GTE Corporation. Mr. Richardson holds a B.A. in Counseling Psychology from Antioch University.
 
Stephen Ambler joined Immersion in February 2005 as Chief Financial Officer. From April 2001 to January 2005, Mr. Ambler served as Chief Financial Officer and Vice President, Finance of Bam! Entertainment, Inc., a producer of interactive video games. From April 1994 to March 2001, he served as Director of Finance and Administration for Europe and then Chief Financial Officer, Secretary, and Senior Vice President, Finance of Insignia Solutions PLC, a wireless solutions software company. From December 1992 to March 1994, he served as Financial Controller and Company Secretary for Ampex Great Britain Limited, a producer of recording equipment and magnetic tape for the television and defense industries. From May 1988 to December 1992, he served as Financial Controller and then Finance Director of Carlton Cabletime Limited, a supplier of cable television equipment. Mr. Ambler holds a diploma in Accounting Studies from Oxford Polytechnic in England and is qualified as a Chartered Accountant in England and Wales.


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Daniel Chavez joined Immersion in December 2008 as Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Medical Line of Business. Mr. Chavez previously served as interim Senior Vice President and General Manager of Immersion’s Medical Line of Business since August 2008. From January 2007 to July 2008, Mr. Chavez was a health information technology consultant focused on business planning, strategic alliance development, product management, and marketing. From September 2001 to December 2006, Mr. Chavez held various positions at Availity, LLC, a healthcare transactions company, including Senior Vice President, Operations, Vice President, Operations, and Vice President, Business Development. Prior to September 2001, Mr. Chavez held positions with Emstat Corporation, Computer Sciences Corporation, Stellcom Technologies, Inc., Science Applications International Corporation, GTE Corporation and IBM Corporation. Mr. Chavez holds an M.B.A. from Stanford University and a B.A. in Economics from San Jose State University.
 
G. Craig Vachon joined Immersion in September 2008 as Vice President and General Manager, Mobility Group. Effective January 12, 2009. Mr. Vachon was promoted to Senior Vice President and General Manager of the Touch Line of Business. From February 2006 to September 2008, Mr. Vachon served as Vice President of Corporate Development of Atrua Technologies, Inc. and from March 2004 to February 2006, Mr. Vachon served as the CEO and President of Varatouch Technology, Inc., which was acquired by Atrua Technologies, Inc. in February 2006. From November 2001 to November 2003, he served as CEO and Chairman of Sirenic, Inc. Mr. Vachon holds a B.S. in Communication and an M.S. in Business Communication from Emerson College.
 
Item 1A.   Risk Factors
 
You should carefully consider the following risks and uncertainties, as well as other information in this report and our other SEC filings, in considering our business and prospects. If any of the following risks or uncertainties actually occur, our business, financial condition, or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. The following risks and uncertainties are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties of which we are unaware or that we currently believe are immaterial could also materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, or results of operations. In any case, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose all or part of your investment. See also the Forward-looking Statements discussion in Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”
 
Company Risks
 
The uncertain global economic environment could reduce our revenues and could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
 
The current global economic recession could materially hurt our business in a number of ways including, longer sales and renewal cycles, delays in adoption of our products, increased risk of competition for our products, increased risk of inventory obsolescence, higher overhead costs as a percentage of revenue, delays in signing or failing to sign customer agreements, or signing customer agreements at reduced purchase levels. In addition, our suppliers, customers, potential customers, and business partners are facing similar challenges, which could materially and adversely affect the level of business they conduct with us. The current economic downturn may lead to a reduction in corporate, university, or government budgets for research and development in sectors including the automotive, aerospace, mobility, and medical sectors, which use our products. Sales of our products may be adversely affected by cuts in these research and development budgets. Furthermore, a prolonged tightening of the credit markets could significantly impact our ability to liquidate investments or reduce the rate of return on investments.
 
We had an accumulated deficit of $68 million as of December 31, 2008, have a history of losses, expect to experience losses in the future, and may not achieve or maintain profitability in the future.
 
Since 1997, we have incurred losses in all but four recent quarters. We need to generate significant ongoing revenue to return to profitability. We anticipate that we will continue to incur expenses as we:
 
  •  continue to develop our technologies;


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  •  increase our sales and marketing efforts;
 
  •  attempt to expand the market for touch-enabled technologies and products and change our business;
 
  •  protect and enforce our intellectual property;
 
  •  pursue strategic relationships;
 
  •  acquire intellectual property or other assets from third-parties; and
 
  •  invest in systems and processes to manage our business.
 
If our revenues grow more slowly than we anticipate or if our operating expenses exceed our expectations, we may not achieve or maintain profitability.
 
We have little or no control or influence on our licensees’ design, manufacturing, promotion, distribution, or pricing of their products incorporating our touch-enabling technologies, upon which we generate royalty revenue.
 
A key part of our business strategy is to license our intellectual property to companies that manufacture and sell products incorporating our touch-enabling technologies. Sales of those products generate royalty and license revenue for us. For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007 and 2006, 39%, 34% and 26%, respectively, of our total revenues were royalty and license revenues. We do not control or influence the design, manufacture, quality control, promotion, distribution, or pricing of products that are manufactured and sold by our licensees, nor can we control consolidation within an industry which could either reduce the number of licensing products available or reduce royalty rates for the combined licensees. In addition, we generally do not have commitments from our licensees that they will continue to use our technologies in current or future products. As a result, products incorporating our technologies may not be brought to market, achieve commercial acceptance, or otherwise generate meaningful royalty revenue for us. For us to generate royalty revenue, licensees that pay us per-unit royalties must manufacture and distribute products incorporating our touch-enabling technologies in a timely fashion and generate consumer demand through marketing and other promotional activities. If our licensees’ products fail to achieve commercial success or if products are recalled because of quality control problems, our revenues will not grow and could decline.
 
Peak demand for products that incorporate our technologies, especially in the video console gaming and computer gaming peripherals market, typically occurs in the fourth calendar quarter as a result of increased demand during the year-end holiday season. If our licensees do not ship products incorporating our touch-enabling technologies in a timely fashion or fail to achieve strong sales in the fourth quarter of the calendar year, we may not receive related royalty and license revenue.
 
We may not be able to continue to derive significant revenues from makers of peripherals for popular video gaming platforms.
 
A significant portion of our gaming royalty revenues come from third-party peripheral makers who make licensed gaming products designed for use with popular video game console systems from Microsoft, Sony, and Nintendo. Video game console systems are closed, proprietary systems, and video game console system makers typically impose certain requirements or restrictions on third-party peripheral makers who wish to make peripherals that will be compatible with a particular video game console system. If third-party peripheral makers cannot or are not allowed to obtain or satisfy these requirements or restrictions, our gaming royalty revenues could be significantly reduced. Furthermore, should a significant video game console maker choose to omit touch-enabling capabilities from its console system or somehow restrict or impede the ability of third parties to make touch-enabling peripherals, it may very well lead our gaming licensees to stop making products with touch-enabling capabilities, thereby significantly reducing our gaming royalty revenues.
 
Under the terms of our agreement with Sony, Sony receives a royalty-free license to our worldwide portfolio of patents. This license permits Sony to make, use, and sell hardware, software, and services covered by our patents in


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its PS1, PS2, and PS3 systems for a fixed license payment. The PS3 console system was launched in late 2006 in the United States and Japan without force feedback capability. Sony has since released new PS3 controllers with vibration feedback. We do not know to what extent Sony will allow third-party peripheral makers to make licensed PS3 gaming products with vibration feedback to interface with the PS3 console. To the extent Sony selectively limits their licensing to leading third-party controller makers to make PS3 controllers with vibration feedback, our licensing revenue from third-party PS3 peripherals will continue to be severely limited. Sony continues to sell the PS2, and our third party licensees continue to sell licensed PS2 peripherals. However, U.S. sales of PS2 peripherals continue to decline as more consumers switch to the PS3 console system and other next-generation console systems like the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Xbox 360.
 
Both the Microsoft Xbox 360 and Nintendo Wii include touch-enabling capabilities. For the Microsoft Xbox 360 video console system launched in November 2005, Microsoft has, to date, not yet broadly licensed third parties to produce peripherals for its Xbox 360 game console. To the extent Microsoft does not fully license third parties, Microsoft’s share of all aftermarket Xbox 360 game controller sales will likely remain high or increase, which we expect will limit our gaming royalty revenue. Additionally, Microsoft is now making touch-enabled steering wheel products covered by their royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable license to our worldwide portfolio of patents that could compete with our licensees’ current products for which we earn per unit royalties.
 
Because we have a fixed payment license with Microsoft, our royalty revenue from licensing in the gaming market and other consumer markets has declined and may further do so if Microsoft increases its volume of sales of touch-enabled gaming products and consumer products at the expense of our other licensees.
 
Under the terms of our present agreement with Microsoft, Microsoft receives a royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable license to our worldwide portfolio of patents. This license permits Microsoft to make, use, and sell hardware, software, and services, excluding specified products, covered by our patents. We will not receive any further revenues or royalties from Microsoft under our current agreement with Microsoft. Microsoft has a significant share of the market for touch-enabled console gaming computer peripherals and is pursuing other consumer markets such as mobile phones, PDAs, and portable music players. Microsoft has significantly greater financial, sales, and marketing resources, as well as greater name recognition and a larger customer base than some of our other licensees. In the event that Microsoft increases its share of these markets, our royalty revenue from other licensees in these market segments might decline.
 
We generate revenues from touch-enabling components that are sold and incorporated into third-party products. We have little or no control or influence over the design, manufacture, promotion, distribution, or pricing of those third-party products.
 
Part of our business strategy is to sell components that provide touch feedback capability in products that other companies design, manufacture, and sell. Sales of these components generate product revenue. However, we do not control or influence the design, manufacture, quality control, promotion, distribution, or pricing of products that are manufactured and sold by those customers that buy these components. In addition, we generally do not have commitments from customers that they will continue to use our components in current or future products. As a result, products incorporating our components may not be brought to market, meet quality control standards, or achieve commercial acceptance. If the customers fail to stimulate and capitalize upon market demand for their products that include our components, or if products are recalled because of quality control problems, our revenues will not grow and could decline.
 
The terms in our agreements may be construed by our licensees in a manner that is inconsistent with the rights that we have granted to other licensees, or in a manner that may require us to incur substantial costs to resolve conflicts over license terms.
 
We have entered into, and we expect to continue to enter into, agreements pursuant to which our licensees are granted rights under our technology and intellectual property. These rights may be granted in certain fields of use, or with respect to certain market sectors or product categories, and may include exclusive rights or sublicensing rights. We refer to the license terms and restrictions in our agreements, including, but not limited to, field of use definitions, market sector, and product category definitions, collectively as “License Provisions.”


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Due to the continuing evolution of market sectors, product categories, and licensee business models, and to the compromises inherent in the drafting and negotiation of License Provisions, our licensees may, at some time during the term of their agreements with us, interpret License Provisions in their agreements in a way that is different from our interpretation of such License Provisions, or in a way that is in conflict with the rights that we have granted to other licensees. Such interpretations by our licensees may lead to claims that we have granted rights to one licensee which are inconsistent with the rights that we have granted to another licensee.
 
In addition, after we enter into an agreement, it is possible that markets and/or products, or legal and/or regulatory environments, will evolve in a manner that we did not foresee or was not foreseeable at the time we entered into the agreement. As a result, in any agreement, we may have granted rights that will preclude or restrict our exploitation of new opportunities that arise after the execution of the agreement.
 
If we are unable to enter into new licensing arrangements with our existing licensees and with additional third-party manufacturers for our touch-enabling technologies, our royalty revenue may not grow.
 
Our revenue growth is significantly dependent on our ability to enter into new licensing arrangements. Our failure to enter into new or renewal of licensing arrangements will cause our operating results to suffer. We face numerous risks in obtaining new licenses on terms consistent with our business objectives and in maintaining, expanding, and supporting our relationships with our current licensees. These risks include:
 
  •  the lengthy and expensive process of building a relationship with potential licensees;
 
  •  the competition we may face with the internal design teams of existing and potential licensees;
 
  •  difficulties in persuading product manufacturers to work with us, to rely on us for critical technology, and to disclose to us proprietary product development and other strategies;
 
  •  difficulties with persuading potential licensees who may have developed their own intellectual property or licensed intellectual property from other parties in areas related to ours to license our technology versus continuing to develop their own or license from other parties;
 
  •  challenges in demonstrating the compelling value of our technologies in new applications like mobile phones, portable devices, and touchscreens;
 
  •  difficulties in persuading existing and potential licensees to bear the development costs and risks necessary to incorporate our technologies into their products;
 
  •  difficulties in obtaining new [automotive] licensees for yet-to-be commercialized technology because their suppliers may not be ready to meet stringent quality and parts availability requirements;
 
  •  inability to sign new gaming licenses if the video console makers choose not to license third parties to make peripherals for their new consoles; and
 
  •  reluctance of content developers, mobile phone manufacturers, and service providers to sign license agreements without a critical mass of other such inter-dependent supporters of the mobile phone industry also having a license, or without enough phones in the market that incorporate our technologies.
 
Our recently-announced consolidation of our Medical operations may not be successful, and may negatively impact our business
 
In March 2009, we announced that we are consolidating the operations of our Medical line of business with the rest of our business. As a result of this consolidation, we will be moving the operations of our Medical line of business from Maryland to our headquarters in San Jose, California. Consolidations and business restructurings involve numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to: the potential loss of key employees, customers and business partners; market uncertainty related to our future business plans; the incurrence of unexpected expenses or charges; diversion of management attention from other key areas of our business; negative impacts on employee morale; and other potential dislocations and disruptions to the business. For 2008, our Medical line of business represented 41% of our total revenues. Accordingly, if we are unable to manage this consolidation effectively, our overall business and operating results could be materially and adversely affected.


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Litigation regarding intellectual property rights could be expensive, disruptive, and time consuming; could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property; and could adversely affect our business.
 
Intellectual property litigation, whether brought by us or by others against us, has caused us to expend, and may cause us to expend in future periods, significant financial resources as well as divert management’s time and efforts. From time to time, we initiate claims against third parties that we believe infringe our intellectual property rights. We intend to enforce our intellectual property rights vigorously and may initiate litigation against parties that we believe are infringing our intellectual property rights if we are unable to resolve matters satisfactorily through negotiation. Litigation brought to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights could be costly, time-consuming, and difficult to pursue in certain venues, and distracting to management and potential customers and could result in the impairment or loss of portions of our intellectual property. In addition, any litigation in which we are accused of infringement may cause product shipment delays, require us to develop non-infringing technologies, or require us to enter into royalty or license agreements even before the issue of infringement has been decided on the merits. If any litigation were not resolved in our favor, we could become subject to substantial damage claims from third parties and indemnification claims from our licensees. We could be enjoined from the continued use of the technologies at issue without a royalty or license agreement. Royalty or license agreements, if required, might not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. If a third party claiming infringement against us prevailed, and we may not be able to develop non-infringing technologies or license the infringed or similar technologies on a timely and cost-effective basis, our expenses could increase and our revenues could decrease.
 
While we attempt to avoid infringing known proprietary rights of third parties, third parties may hold, or may in the future be issued, patents that could be infringed by our products or technologies. Any of these third parties might make a claim of infringement against us with respect to the products that we manufacture and the technologies that we license. From time to time, we have received letters from companies, several of which have significantly greater financial resources than we do, asserting that some of our technologies, or those of our licensees, infringe their intellectual property rights. Certain of our licensees may receive similar letters from these or other companies from time to time. Such letters or subsequent litigation may influence our licensees’ decisions whether to ship products incorporating our technologies. In addition, such letters may cause a dispute between our licensees and us over indemnification for the infringement claim. Any of these notices, or additional notices that we or our licensees could receive in the future from these or other companies, could lead to litigation against us, either regarding the infringement claim or the indemnification claim.
 
We have acquired patents from third parties and also license some technologies from third parties. We must rely upon the owners of the patents or the technologies for information on the origin and ownership of the acquired or licensed technologies. As a result, our exposure to infringement claims may increase. We generally obtain representations as to the origin and ownership of acquired or licensed technologies and indemnification to cover any breach of these representations. However, representations may not be accurate and indemnification may not provide adequate compensation for breach of the representations. Intellectual property claims against our licensees, or us, whether or not they have merit, could be time-consuming to defend, cause product shipment delays, require us to pay damages, harm existing license arrangements, or require us or our licensees to cease utilizing the technologies unless we can enter into licensing agreements. Licensing agreements might not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. Furthermore, claims by third parties against our licensees could also result in claims by our licensees against us for indemnification.
 
The legal principles applicable to patents and patent licenses continue to change and evolve. Legislation and judicial decisions that make it easier for patent licensees to challenge the validity, enforceability, or infringement of patents, or make it more difficult for patent licensors to obtain a permanent injunction, obtain enhanced damages for willful infringement, or to obtain or enforce patents, may adversely affect our business and the value of our patent portfolio. Furthermore, our prospects for future revenue growth through our royalty and licensing based businesses could be diminished.


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Our current litigation undertakings are expensive, disruptive, and time consuming, and will continue to be, until resolved, and regardless of whether we are ultimately successful, could adversely affect our business.
 
We are currently a party to various legal proceedings. Due to the inherent uncertainties of litigation, we cannot accurately predict how these cases will ultimately be resolved. We anticipate that the litigation will continue to be costly, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful or able to recover the costs we incur in connection with the litigation. We expense litigation costs as incurred, and only accrue for costs that have been incurred but not paid to the vendor as of the financial statement date. Litigation has diverted, and is likely to continue to divert, the efforts and attention of some of our key management and personnel. As a result, until such time as it is resolved, litigation could adversely affect our business. Further, any unfavorable outcome could adversely affect our business. For additional background on this and our other litigation, please see Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements in Part I and Item 1. “Legal Proceedings” of this Part II.
 
Product liability claims could be time-consuming and costly to defend and could expose us to loss.
 
Our products or our licensees’ products may have flaws or other defects that may lead to personal or other injury claims. If products that we or our licensees sell cause personal injury, property injury, financial loss, or other injury to our or our licensees’ customers, the customers or our licensees may seek damages or other recovery from us. Defending any claims against us, regardless of merit, would be time-consuming, expensive to defend, and distracting to management, and could result in damages and injure our reputation, the reputation of our technology and services, and/or the reputation of our products, or the reputation of our licensees or their products. This damage could limit the market for our and our licensees’ products and harm our results of operations. In addition, if our business liability insurance coverage proves inadequate or future coverage is unavailable on acceptable terms or at all, our business, operating results and financial condition could be adversely affected.
 
In the past, manufacturers of peripheral products including certain gaming products such as joysticks, wheels, or gamepads, have been subject to claims alleging that use of their products has caused or contributed to various types of repetitive stress injuries, including carpal tunnel syndrome. While we have not experienced any product liability claims to date, we could face such claims in the future, which could harm our business and reputation. Although our license agreements typically contain provisions designed to limit our exposure to product liability claims, existing or future laws or unfavorable judicial decisions could limit or invalidate the provisions.
 
Our products are complex and may contain undetected errors, which could harm our reputation and future product sales.
 
Any failure to provide high quality and reliable products, whether caused by our own failure or failures of our suppliers or OEM customers, could damage our reputation and reduce demand for our products. Our products have in the past contained, and may in the future contain, undetected errors or defects. Some errors in our products may only be discovered after a product has been shipped to customers. Any errors or defects discovered in our products after commercial release could result in loss of revenue, loss of customers, and increased service and warranty costs, any of which could adversely affect our business.
 
The nature of some of our products may also subject us to export control regulation by the U.S. Department of State and the Department of Commerce. Violations of these regulations can result in monetary penalties and denial of export privileges.
 
Our sales to customers in some areas outside the United States could be subject to government export regulations or restrictions that prohibit us from selling to customers in some countries or that require us to obtain licenses or approvals to export such products internationally. Delays or denial of the grant of any required license or approval, or changes to the regulations, could make it difficult or impossible to make sales to foreign customers in some countries and could adversely affect our revenue. In addition, we could be subject to fines and penalties for violation of these export regulations if we were found in violation. Such violation could result in penalties, including prohibiting us from exporting our products to one or more countries, and could materially and adversely affect our business.


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Compliance with directives that restrict the use of certain materials may increase our costs and limit our revenue opportunities.
 
Our products and packaging must meet all safety, electrical, labeling, marking, or other requirements of the countries into which we ship products or our resellers sell our products. We have to assess each product and determine whether it complies with the requirements of local regulations or whether they are exempt from meeting the requirements of the regulations. If we determine that a product is not exempt and does not comply with adopted regulations, we will have to make changes to the product or its documentation if we want to sell that product into the region once the regulations become effective. Making such changes may be costly to perform and may have a negative impact on our results of operations. In addition, there can be no assurance that the national enforcement bodies of the regions adopting such regulations will agree with our assessment that certain of our products and documentation comply with or are exempt from the regulations. If products are determined not to be compliant or exempt, we will not be able to ship them in the region that adopts such regulations until such time that they are compliant, and this may have a negative impact on our revenue and results of operations.
 
Because personal computer peripheral products that incorporate our touch-enabling technologies currently work with Microsoft’s operating system software, our costs could increase and our revenues could decline if Microsoft modifies its operating system software.
 
Our hardware and software technologies for personal computer peripheral products that incorporate our touch-enabling technologies are currently compatible with Microsoft’s Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows XP, and Windows Vista operating systems, including DirectX, Microsoft’s entertainment API. Modifications and new versions of Microsoft’s operating system and APIs (including DirectX and Windows 7) may require that we and/or our licensees modify the touch-enabling technologies to be compatible with Microsoft’s modifications or new versions, and this could cause delays in the release of products by our licensees. If Microsoft modifies its software products in ways that limit the use of our other licensees’ products, our costs could increase and our revenues could decline.
 
In addition, Microsoft announced that its new product, Windows 7, will feature a new multi-touch input function, allowing users to use multiple fingers simultaneously to interact with touch surfaces. Enabling multi-location touch-feedback will require us to innovate hardware and software, enable Windows 7 API’s with multi-touch output support, and work with our licensees and third parties to integrate such features. There are feasibility risks with both hardware and software, and there may be potential delays in the revenue growth of haptically-enabled multi touch surfaces.
 
If we are unable to develop open source compliant products, our ability to license our technologies and generate revenues would be impaired.
 
We have seen, and believe that we will continue to see, an increase in customers requesting that we develop products that will operate in an “open source” environment. Developing open source compliant products, without imperiling the intellectual property rights upon which our licensing business depends, may prove difficult under certain circumstances, thereby placing us at a competitive disadvantage for new product designs. As a result, our revenues may not grow and could decline.
 
The market for certain touch-enabling technologies and touch-enabled products is at an early stage and if market demand does not develop, we may not achieve or sustain revenue growth.
 
The market for certain of our touch-enabling technologies and certain of our licensees’ touch-enabled products is at an early stage. If we and our licensees are unable to develop demand for touch-enabling technologies and touch-enabled products, we may not achieve or sustain revenue growth. We cannot accurately predict the growth of the markets for these technologies and products, the timing of product introductions, or the timing of commercial acceptance of these products.
 
Even if our touch-enabling technologies and our licensees’ touch-enabled products are ultimately widely adopted, widespread adoption may take a long time to occur. The timing and amount of royalties and product sales


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that we receive will depend on whether the products marketed achieve widespread adoption and, if so, how rapidly that adoption occurs.
 
We expect that we will need to pursue extensive and expensive marketing and sales efforts to educate prospective licensees, component customers, and end users about the uses and benefits of our technologies and to persuade software developers to create software that utilizes our technologies. Negative product reviews or publicity about our company, our products, our licensees’ products, haptic features, or haptic technology in general could have a negative impact on market adoption, our revenue, and/or our ability to license our technologies in the future.
 
If we fail to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights, our ability to license our technologies and generate revenues would be impaired.
 
Our business depends on generating revenues by licensing our intellectual property rights and by selling products that incorporate our technologies. We rely on our significant patent portfolio to protect our proprietary rights. If we are not able to protect and enforce those rights, our ability to obtain future licenses or maintain current licenses and royalty revenue could be impaired. In addition, if a court or the patent office were to limit the scope, declare unenforceable, or invalidate any of our patents, current licensees may refuse to make royalty payments, or they may choose to challenge one or more of our patents. It is also possible that:
 
  •  our pending patent applications may not result in the issuance of patents;
 
  •  our patents may not be broad enough to protect our proprietary rights; and
 
  •  effective patent protection may not be available in every country in which we or our licensees do business.
 
We also rely on licenses, confidentiality agreements, other contractual agreements, and copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws to establish and protect our proprietary rights. It is possible that:
 
  •  laws and contractual restrictions may not be sufficient to prevent misappropriation of our technologies or deter others from developing similar technologies; and
 
  •  policing unauthorized use of our patented technologies, trademarks, and other proprietary rights would be difficult, expensive, and time-consuming, within and particularly outside of the United States of America.
 
Certain terms or rights granted in our license agreements or our development contracts may limit our future revenue opportunities.
 
While it is not our general practice to sign license agreements that provide exclusive rights for a period of time with respect to a technology, field of use, and/or geography, or to accept similar limitations in product development contracts, we have entered into such agreements and may in the future. Although additional compensation or other benefits may be part of the agreement, the compensation or benefits may not adequately compensate us for the limitations or restrictions we have agreed to as that particular market develops. Over the life of the exclusivity period, especially in markets that grow larger or faster than anticipated, our revenue may be limited and less than what we could have achieved in the market with several licensees or additional products available to sell to a specific set of customers.
 
If we fail to develop new or enhanced technologies for new applications and platforms, we may not be able to create a market for our technologies or our technologies may become obsolete, and our ability to grow and our results of operations might be harmed.
 
Our initiatives to develop new and enhanced technologies and to commercialize these technologies for new applications and new platforms may not be successful or timely. Any new or enhanced technologies may not be favorably received by consumers and could damage our reputation or our brand. Expanding our technologies could also require significant additional expenses and strain our management, financial, and operational resources.


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Moreover, technology products generally have relatively short product life cycles and our current products may become obsolete in the future. Our ability to generate revenues will be harmed if:
 
  •  we fail to develop new technologies or products;
 
  •  the technologies we develop infringe on third-party patents or other third-party rights;
 
  •  our new technologies fail to gain market acceptance; or
 
  •  our current products become obsolete or no longer meet new regulatory requirements.
 
Our ability to achieve revenue growth also depends on our continuing ability to improve and reduce the cost of our technologies and to introduce these technologies to the marketplace in a timely manner. If our development efforts are not successful or are significantly delayed, companies may not incorporate our technologies into their products and our revenue growth may be impaired.
 
We have limited engineering, customer service, technical support, quality assurance and manufacturing resources to design and fulfill favorable product delivery schedules and sufficient levels of quality in support of our different product areas. Products and services may not be delivered in a timely way, with sufficient levels of quality, or at all, which may reduce our revenue.
 
Engineering, customer service, technical support, quality assurance, and manufacturing resources are deployed against a variety of different projects and programs to provide sufficient levels of quality necessary for channels and customers. Success in various markets may depend on timely deliveries and overall levels of sustained quality and customer service. Failure to provide favorable product and program deliverables and quality and customer service levels, or provide them at all, may disrupt channels and customers, harm our brand, and reduce our revenues.
 
The higher cost of products incorporating our touch-enabling technologies may inhibit or prevent their widespread adoption.
 
Personal computer and console gaming peripherals, mobile devices, touchscreens, and automotive and industrial controls incorporating our touch-enabling technologies can be more expensive than similar competitive products that are not touch-enabled. Although major manufacturers, such as ALPS Electric Co., BMW, LG Electronics, Logitech, Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung, and Sony have licensed our technologies, the greater expense of development and production of products containing our touch-enabling technologies, together with the higher price to the end customer, may be a significant barrier to their widespread adoption and sale.
 
Third-party validation studies may not demonstrate all the benefits of our medical training simulators, which could affect customer motivation to buy.
 
In medical training, validation studies are generally used to confirm the usefulness of new techniques, devices, and training methods. For medical training simulators, several levels of validation are generally tested: content, concurrent, construct, and predictive. A validation study performed by a third party, such as a hospital, a teaching institution, or even an individual healthcare professional, could result in showing little or no benefit for one or more types of validation for our medical training simulators. Such validation study results published in medical journals could impact the willingness of customers to buy our training simulators, especially new simulators that have not previously been validated. In addition, customers may be reluctant to purchase these products if no studies have been published or until a favorable study has been published, which would negatively impact our revenues from sales of these products.


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Medical licensing and certification authorities may not recommend or require use of our technologies for training and/or testing purposes and certain legislation that may encourage the use of simulators may not become law, significantly slowing or inhibiting the market penetration of our medical simulation technologies.
 
Several key medical certification bodies, including the American Board of Internal Medicine (“ABIM”), the American Board of Surgery (“ABS”), and the American College of Cardiology (“ACC”), have great influence in recommending particular medical methodologies, including medical training and testing methodologies, for use by medical professionals. In the event that the ABIM and the ACC, as well as other, similar bodies, do not endorse medical simulation products in general, or our products in particular, as a training and/or testing tool, and in addition in the event that the Enhancing Simulation Act of 2009 does not pass into law, market penetration for our products in the medical market could be significantly and adversely affected.
 
We have limited distribution channels and resources to market and sell our products, and if we are unsuccessful in marketing and selling these products, we may not achieve or sustain product revenue growth.
 
We have limited resources for marketing and selling our products, either directly or through distributors. To achieve our business objectives, we must build a balanced mixture of sales through a direct sales channel and through qualified distribution channels. The success of our efforts to sell products will depend upon our ability to retain and develop a qualified sales force and effective distribution channels. We may not be successful in attracting and retaining the personnel necessary to sell and market our products. A number of our distributors are small, specialized companies and may not have sufficient capital or human resources to support the complexities of selling and supporting our products. In addition, many of our distributors do not have exclusive relationships with us and may not devote sufficient time and attention to selling our products. There can be no assurance that our direct selling efforts will be effective, distributors or OEMs will market our products successfully or, if our relationships with distributors or OEMs terminate, that we will be able to establish relationships with other distributors or OEMs on satisfactory terms, if at all. Any disruption in the distribution, sales, or marketing network for our products could have a material adverse effect on our product revenues.
 
It is difficult for us to predict the sales volume of our distribution channels, which makes it difficult for us to forecast our business.
 
The sales volumes for our limited distribution channels are volatile and hard to predict. We consider forecasts in determining our component needs and our inventory requirements. If the business in these limited distribution channels fails to meet expectations, or if we fail to accurately forecast our customers’ product demands, we may have inadequate or excess inventory of our products or components or assets that are not realizable, which could adversely affect our operating results.
 
The markets in which we participate or may target in the future are intensely competitive, and if we do not compete effectively, our operating results could be harmed.
 
Our target markets are rapidly evolving and highly competitive. Many of our competitors and potential competitors are larger and have greater name recognition, much longer operating histories, larger marketing budgets, and significantly greater resources than we do, and with the introduction of new technologies and market entrants, we expect competition to intensify in the future. We believe that competition in these markets will continue to be intense and that competitive pressures will drive the price of our products and our licensees’ products downward. These price reductions, if not offset by increases in unit sales or productivity, will cause our revenues to decline. If we fail to compete effectively, our business will be harmed. Some of our principal competitors offer their products or services at a lower price, which has resulted in pricing pressures. If we are unable to achieve our target pricing levels, our operating results would be negatively impacted. In addition, pricing pressures and increased competition generally could result in reduced sales, reduced margins, losses, or the failure of our application suite to achieve or maintain more widespread market acceptance, any of which could harm our business.
 
In the medical simulation market, we face competition from Simbionix USA Corporation, Mentice Corporation, Medical Education Technologies, Inc., and Medical Simulation Corporation. In the mobility and


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touchscreen markets, we face competition from internal design teams of existing and potential OEM customers. As a result of their licenses to our patent portfolios, we could face competition from Microsoft and Sony.
 
Our licensees or other third parties may also seek to develop products using our intellectual property or develop alternative designs that attempt to circumvent our intellectual property or that they believe do not require a license under our intellectual property. These potential competitors may have significantly greater financial, technical, and marketing resources than we do, and the costs associated with asserting our intellectual property rights against such products and such potential competitors could be significant. Moreover, if such alternative designs were determined by a court not to require a license under our intellectual property rights, competition from such unlicensed products could limit or reduce our revenues.
 
Additionally, if haptic technology gains market acceptance, more research by universities and/or corporations or other parties may be performed potentially leading to strong intellectual property positions by third parties in certain areas of haptics or the launch of haptics products before we commercialize our own technology.
 
Many of our current and potential competitors, including Microsoft, are able to devote greater resources to the development, promotion, and sale of their products and services. In addition, many of our competitors have established marketing relationships or access to larger customer bases, distributors, and other business partners. As a result, our competitors might be able to respond more quickly and effectively than we can to new or changing opportunities, technologies, standards or customer requirements. Further, some potential customers, particularly large enterprises, may elect to develop their own internal solutions. For all of these reasons, we may not be able to compete successfully against our current and future competitors.
 
Winning business is subject to a competitive selection process that can be lengthy and requires us to incur significant expense, and we may not be selected.
 
Our primary focus is on winning competitive bid selection processes, known as “design wins,” so that haptics will be included in our customers’ equipment. These selection processes can be lengthy and can require us to incur significant design and development expenditures. We may not win the competitive selection process and may never generate any revenue despite incurring significant design and development expenditures. Because we typically focus on only a few customers in a product area, the loss of a design win can sometimes result in our failure to get haptics added to new generation products. This can result in lost sales and could hurt our position in future competitive selection processes because we may not be perceived as being a technology leader.
 
After winning a product design for one of our customers, we may still experience delays in generating revenue from our products as a result of the lengthy development and design cycle. In addition, a delay or cancellation of a customer’s plans could significantly adversely affect our financial results, as we may have incurred significant expense and generated no revenue. Finally, if our customers fail to successfully market and sell their equipment it could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations as the demand for our products falls.
 
Automobiles incorporating our touch-enabling technologies are subject to lengthy product development periods, making it difficult to predict when and whether we will receive automotive royalties.
 
The product development process for automobiles is very lengthy, sometimes longer than four years. We may not earn royalty revenue on our automotive technologies unless and until automobiles featuring our technologies are shipped to customers, which may not occur until several years after we enter into an agreement with an automobile manufacturer or a supplier to an automobile manufacturer. Throughout the product development process, we face the risk that an automobile manufacturer or supplier may delay the incorporation of, or choose not to incorporate, our technologies into its automobiles, making it difficult for us to predict the automotive royalties we may receive, if any. After the product launches, our royalties still depend on market acceptance of the vehicle or the option packages if our technology is an option (for example, a navigation unit), which is likely to be determined by many factors beyond our control.


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We have experienced significant change in our business, and we cannot assure you that these changes will result in increased revenue or profitability.
 
Our business has undergone significant changes in recent periods, including the proposed divestiture of our 3D business, new management, consolidation of our touch, gaming, and mobility businesses and personnel changes and focus on additional target markets. These changes have required significant investments of cash and other resources, as well as management’s time and attention and have placed significant strains on our managerial, financial, engineering, or other resources. We cannot assure you that these efforts will result in growing our business successfully or in increased operating performance.
 
Our international expansion efforts subject us to additional risks and costs.
 
We intend to expand international activities.  International operations are subject to a number of difficulties and special costs, including:
 
  •  compliance with multiple, conflicting and changing governmental laws and regulations;
 
  •  laws and business practices favoring local competitors;
 
  •  foreign exchange and currency risks;
 
  •  difficulty in collecting accounts receivable or longer payment cycles;
 
  •  import and export restrictions and tariffs;
 
  •  difficulties staffing and managing foreign operations;
 
  •  difficulties and expense in enforcing intellectual property rights;
 
  •  business risks, including fluctuations in demand for our products and the cost and effort to conduct international operations and travel abroad to promote international distribution and overall global economic conditions;
 
  •  multiple conflicting tax laws and regulations; and
 
  •  political and economic instability.
 
Our international operations could also increase our exposure to international laws and regulations. If we cannot comply with foreign laws and regulations, which are often complex and subject to variation and unexpected changes, we could incur unexpected costs and potential litigation. For example, the governments of foreign countries might attempt to regulate our products and services or levy sales or other taxes relating to our activities. In addition, foreign countries may impose tariffs, duties, price controls, or other restrictions on foreign currencies or trade barriers, any of which could make it more difficult for us to conduct our business.
 
Clent Richardson, our chief executive officer, and other members of our executive management team are relatively new and if there are difficulties with this leadership transition it could impede the execution of our business strategy.
 
Clent Richardson, our Chief Executive Officer, was hired in April 2008, and other members of our executive management team also joined us in 2008. Our success will depend to a significant extent on their ability to implement a successful strategy, to successfully lead and motivate our employees, and to work effectively with other members of our executive management team and board of directors. If this leadership transition is not successful, our ability to execute our business strategy would be impeded.
 
We might be unable to retain or recruit necessary personnel, which could slow the development and deployment of our technologies.
 
Our ability to develop and deploy our technologies and to sustain our revenue growth depends upon the continued service of our management and other key personnel, many of whom would be difficult to replace. Management and other key employees may voluntarily terminate their employment with us at any time upon short


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notice. The loss of management or key personnel could delay product development cycles or otherwise harm our business.
 
We believe that our future success will also depend largely on our ability to attract, integrate, and retain sales, support, marketing, and research and development personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense, and we may not be successful in attracting, integrating, and retaining such personnel. Given the protracted nature of if, how, and when we collect royalties on new design contracts, it may be difficult to craft compensation plans that will attract and retain the level of salesmanship needed to secure these contracts. Our stock option and award program is a long-term retention program that is intended to attract, retain, and provide incentives for talented employees, officers and directors, and to align stockholder and employee interests. Additionally some of our executive officers and key employees hold stock options with exercise prices above the current market price of our common stock. Each of these factors may impair our ability to retain the services of our executive officers and key employees. Our technologies are complex and we rely upon the continued service of our existing personnel to support licensees, enhance existing technologies, and develop new technologies.
 
If our facilities were to experience catastrophic loss, our operations would be seriously harmed.
 
Our facilities could be subject to a catastrophic loss such as fire, flood, earthquake, power outage, or terrorist activity. A substantial portion of our research and development activities, manufacturing, our corporate headquarters, and other critical business operations are located near major earthquake faults in San Jose, California, an area with a history of seismic events. An earthquake at or near our facilities could disrupt our operations, delay production and shipments of our products or technologies, and result in large expenses to repair and replace the facility. While we believe that we maintain insurance sufficient to cover most long-term potential losses at our facilities, our existing insurance may not be adequate for all possible losses. In addition, California has experienced problems with its power supply in recent years. As a result, we have experienced utility cost increases and may experience unexpected interruptions in our power supply that could have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations, and financial condition.
 
Investment Risks
 
Our quarterly revenues and operating results are volatile, and if our future results are below the expectations of public market analysts or investors, the price of our common stock is likely to decline.
 
Our revenues and operating results are likely to vary significantly from quarter to quarter due to a number of factors, many of which are outside of our control and any of which could cause the price of our common stock to decline.
 
These factors include:
 
  •  the establishment or loss of licensing relationships;
 
  •  the timing and recognition of payments under fixed and/or up-front license agreements;
 
  •  the timing of work performed under development agreements;
 
  •  the timing of our expenses, including costs related to litigation, stock-based awards, acquisitions of technologies, or businesses;
 
  •  the timing of introductions and market acceptance of new products and product enhancements by us, our licensees, our competitors, or their competitors;
 
  •  our ability to develop and improve our technologies;
 
  •  our ability to attract, integrate, and retain qualified personnel;
 
  •  seasonality in the demand for our products or our licensees’ products; and
 
  •  our ability to build or ship products on a timely basis.


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Our stock price may fluctuate regardless of our performance.
 
The stock market has experienced extreme volatility that often has been unrelated or disproportionate to the performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may cause our stock price to decline regardless of our performance. The market price of our common stock has been, and in the future could be, significantly affected by factors such as: actual or anticipated fluctuations in operating results; announcements of technical innovations; announcements regarding litigation in which we are involved; changes by game console manufacturers to not include touch-enabling capabilities in their products; new products or new contracts; sales or the perception in the market of possible sales of large number of shares of our common stock by insiders or others; stock repurchase activity; changes in securities analysts’ recommendations; changing circumstances regarding competitors or their customers; governmental regulatory action; developments with respect to patents or proprietary rights; inclusion in or exclusion from various stock indices; and general market conditions. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, securities class action litigation has been initiated against that company.
 
Provisions in our charter documents and Delaware law could prevent or delay a change in control, which could reduce the market price of our common stock.
 
Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change of control or changes in our board of directors or management, including the following:
 
  •  our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors with staggered three-year terms;
 
  •  only our chairperson of the board of directors, a majority of our board of directors or 10% or greater stockholders are authorized to call a special meeting of stockholders;
 
  •  our stockholders can only take action at a meeting of stockholders and not by written consent;
 
  •  vacancies on our board of directors can be filled only by our board of directors and not by our stockholders;
 
  •  our restated certificate of incorporation authorizes undesignated preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval; and
 
  •  advance notice procedures apply for stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors or to bring matters before an annual meeting of stockholders.
 
In addition, certain provisions of Delaware law may discourage, delay, or prevent someone from acquiring or merging with us. These provisions could limit the price that investors might be willing to pay in the future for shares.
 
We may engage in acquisitions that could dilute stockholders’ interests, divert management attention, or cause integration problems.
 
As part of our business strategy, we have in the past and may in the future, acquire businesses or intellectual property that we feel could complement our business, enhance our technical capabilities, or increase our intellectual property portfolio. The pursuit of potential acquisitions may divert the attention of management and cause us to incur various expenses in identifying, investigating, and pursuing suitable acquisitions, whether or not they are consummated.
 
If we consummate acquisitions through the issuance of our securities, our stockholders could suffer significant dilution. Acquisitions could also create risks for us, including:
 
  •  unanticipated costs associated with the acquisitions;
 
  •  use of substantial portions of our available cash to consummate the acquisitions;
 
  •  diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
 
  •  difficulties in assimilation of acquired personnel or operations;
 
  •  failure to realize the anticipated benefits of acquired intellectual property or other assets;


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  •  charges associated with amortization of acquired assets or potential charges for write-down of assets associated with unsuccessful acquisitions;
 
  •  potential intellectual property infringement claims related to newly acquired product lines; and
 
  •  potential costs associated with failed acquisition efforts.
 
Any acquisitions, even if successfully completed, might not generate significant additional revenue or provide any benefit to our business.
 
Failure to maintain effective internal controls in accordance with section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could have a material adverse effect on our business and stock price.
 
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 requires, among other things, that we establish and maintain internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures. We must perform system and process evaluation and testing of our internal control over financial reporting to allow management to report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, as required by Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Our independent registered public accounting firm is also required to report on our internal control over financing reporting. Our and our auditor’s testing may reveal deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses and render our internal control over financial reporting ineffective. We have incurred, and we expect to continue to incur, substantial accounting and auditing expense and expend significant management time in complying with the requirements of Section 404. If we are not able to comply with the requirements of Section 404 in a timely manner, or if we or our independent registered public accounting firm identify deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting that are deemed to be material weaknesses, the market price of our stock could decline and we could be subject to investigations or sanctions by the SEC, The NASDAQ Stock Market, or NASDAQ, or other regulatory authorities, or become subject to litigation. To the extent any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting are identified in the future, we could be required to expend significant management time and financial resources to correct such material weaknesses or to respond to any resulting regulatory investigations or proceedings.
 
We have determined that our internal control over financial reporting is currently ineffective.
 
As discussed in Part II, Item 9A, Controls and Procedures, our management team, under the supervision and with the participation of our Chief Financial Officer and current Chief Executive Officer, conducted an evaluation of our internal controls as of December 31, 2008. Management concluded that we had a material weakness in internal controls over financial reporting related to income taxes. We have subsequently initiated actions that are intended to improve our accounting for income taxes and the related internal controls. Due to the continuing presence of this material weakness and the ongoing implementation of remedial actions for this material weakness as of December 31, 2008, management concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was not effective as of December 31, 2008. Any continuation of this material weakness in our internal controls over the accounting for income taxes could impair our ability to report our financial position and results of operations accurately and in a timely manner.
 
As our business grows, such growth may place a significant strain on our management and operations and, as a result, our business may suffer.
 
We plan to continue expanding our business, and any significant growth could place a significant strain on our management systems, infrastructure and other resources. We recently transitioned the preparation of all of our internal reporting to upgraded management information systems and are in the process of implementing this system for all of our subsidiaries. If we encounter problems with the implementation of these systems, we may have difficulties preparing or tracking internal information, which could adversely affect our financial results. We will need to continue to invest the necessary capital to upgrade and improve our operational, financial and management reporting systems. If our management fails to manage our growth effectively, we could experience increased costs, declines in product quality, or customer satisfaction, which could harm our business.


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Item 1B.   Unresolved Staff Comments
 
None.
 
Item 2.   Properties
 
We lease a facility in San Jose, California of approximately 48,000 square feet, which serves as our corporate headquarters and includes our sales, marketing, administration, research and development, manufacturing, and distribution functions for the Touch operating segment. Products produced in San Jose include several of our touch interface products, including rotary encoders, components to enable tactile feedback in touchscreens, and various arcade gaming products. The lease for this property expires in June 2014.
 
We lease a facility in Montreal, Quebec, Canada of approximately 9,200 square feet, for our subsidiary, Immersion Canada, Inc. The facility is used for sales administration, research and development, and administration functions. The lease for this property expires in October 2010.
 
We lease a facility in Gaithersburg, Maryland of approximately 18,900 square feet, for the Medical operating segment. The facility is used for sales, marketing, administration, research and development, manufacturing, and distribution functions for the Endoscopy AccuTouch System, the CathLab VR System, Virtual IV System, the Lap VR System, and the insightArthroVR arthroscopy surgical simulator. The lease for this property expires in May 2009. As part of our announced consolidation of our medical operations to our San Jose, California facilities, we will not renew this lease. We also lease storage space in Gaithersburg, Maryland of approximately 1,460 square feet, and this lease expires in October 2010.
 
We lease office space in Seocho-gu, Seoul, Korea. The facility is used for sales and marketing support and research and development functions. This lease expires in November 2009.
 
We lease office space in Espoo, Finland for use by our sales and technical support function. The service agreement is cancelable upon a three month notice.
 
We believe that our existing facilities are adequate to meet our current needs.
 
Item 3.   Legal Proceedings
 
In re Immersion Corporation
 
We are involved in legal proceedings relating to a class action lawsuit filed on November 9, 2001 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, In re Immersion Corporation Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, No. Civ. 01-9975 (S.D.N.Y.), related to In re Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, No. 21 MC 92 (S.D.N.Y.). The named defendants are Immersion and three of our current or former officers or directors (the “Immersion Defendants”), and certain underwriters of our November 12, 1999 initial public offering (“IPO”). Subsequently, two of the individual defendants stipulated to a dismissal without prejudice.
 
The operative amended complaint is brought on purported behalf of all persons who purchased our common stock from the date of our IPO through December 6, 2000. It alleges liability under Sections 11 and 15 of the Securities Act of 1933 and Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, on the grounds that the registration statement for the IPO did not disclose that: (1) the underwriters agreed to allow certain customers to purchase shares in the IPO in exchange for excess commissions to be paid to the underwriters; and (2) the underwriters arranged for certain customers to purchase additional shares in the aftermarket at predetermined prices. The complaint also appears to allege that false or misleading analyst reports were issued. The complaint does not claim any specific amount of damages.
 
Similar allegations were made in other lawsuits challenging over 300 other initial public offerings and follow-on offerings conducted in 1999 and 2000. The cases were consolidated for pretrial purposes. On February 19, 2003, the District Court ruled on all defendants’ motions to dismiss. The motion was denied as to claims under the Securities Act of 1933 in the case involving us as well as in all other cases (except for 10 cases). The motion was denied as to the claim under Section 10(b) as to us, on the basis that the complaint alleged that we had made


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acquisition(s) following the IPO. The motion was granted as to the claim under Section 10(b), but denied as to the claim under Section 20(a), as to the remaining individual defendant.
 
We and most of the issuer defendants had settled with the plaintiffs. In September 2005, the District Court granted preliminary approval of the settlement. The District Court held a hearing to consider final approval of the settlement on April 24, 2006 and took the matter under submission. Subsequently, the Second Circuit vacated the class certification of plaintiffs’ claims against the underwriters in six cases designated as focus or test cases. Thereafter, the District Court ordered a stay of all proceedings in all of the lawsuits pending the outcome of plaintiffs’ petition to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit for rehearing en banc and resolution of the class certification issue. On April 6, 2007, the Second Circuit denied plaintiffs’ petition for rehearing, but clarified that the plaintiffs may seek to certify a more limited class in the District Court. Accordingly, the parties withdrew the prior settlement, and plaintiffs filed an amended complaint in attempt to comply with the Second Circuit’s ruling. On March 26, 2008, the District Court denied in part and granted in part the motions to dismiss the focus cases on substantially the same grounds as set forth in its prior opinion.
 
In September 2008, all of the parties to the lawsuits reached a settlement, subject to documentation and approval of the District Court. As before, the Immersion Defendants would not be required to contribute to the settlement. Subsequently, an underwriter defendant filed for bankruptcy and other underwriter defendants were acquired. We believe that the settlement remains in place, and that final documentation will be presented to the District Court by April 1, 2009. If the settlement is not consummated and then approved by the District Court, we intend to defend the lawsuit vigorously.
 
Internet Services LLC Litigation
 
On October 20, 2004, ISLLC filed claims against us in its lawsuit against Sony Computer Entertainment in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that we breached a contract with ISLLC by suing Sony Computer Entertainment for patent infringement relating to haptically-enabled software whose topics or images are allegedly age-restricted, for judicial apportionment of damages between ISLLC and us of the damages awarded by the jury, and for a judicial declaration with respect to ISLLC’s rights and duties under agreements with us. On December 29, 2004, the District Court issued an order dismissing ISLLC’s claims against Sony Computer Entertainment with prejudice and dismissing ISLLC’s claims against us without prejudice to ISLLC. On January 12, 2005, ISLLC filed Amended Cross-Claims and Counterclaims against us that contained similar claims. On March 24, 2005, the District Court again dismissed certain of these claims with prejudice and dismissed the other claims without prejudice.
 
On February 8, 2006, ISLLC filed a lawsuit against us in the Superior Court of Santa Clara County. ISLLC’s complaint sought a share of the damages awarded to us in the Sony litigation and of the Microsoft settlement proceeds, and generally restated the claims already adjudicated by the District Court. On March 16, 2006, we answered the complaint, cross claimed for declaratory relief, breach of contract by ISLLC, and for rescission of the contract, and removed the lawsuit to federal court. The case was assigned to Judge Wilken in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California as a case related to the previous proceedings involving Sony Computer Entertainment and ISLLC. On May 10, 2007, ISLLC filed a motion in the District Court to remand its latest action to the Superior Court or in the alternative for leave to file an amended complaint. We opposed ISLLC’s motion, and cross-moved for judgment on the pleadings. On June 26, 2007, the District Court ruled on the motions, denying ISLLC’s motion to remand or for leave to file an amended complaint, and granting in part our motion for judgment on the pleadings. The District Court also dismissed one of ISLLC’s claims. However, on May 16, 2008, the District Court entered an order granting our motion for summary judgment on all of ISLLC’s claims, as well as our counterclaim for declaratory relief. As a result, the only claims remaining in the action were our counterclaims against ISLLC. On August 22, 2008, we settled our counterclaims against ISLLC and amended the terms of our existing business agreement with ISLLC. On August 25, 2008, the District Court entered an order dismissing Immersion’s counterclaims and closed the case.


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Microsoft Corporation v. Immersion Corporation
 
On June 18, 2007, Microsoft filed a complaint against us in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging one claim for breach of a contract. Microsoft alleged that we breached a “Sublicense Agreement” executed in connection with the parties’ settlement in 2003 of our claims of patent infringement against Microsoft in Immersion Corporation v. Microsoft Corporation, Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. and Sony Computer Entertainment America, Inc., United States District Court for the Northern District of California, Case No. 02-0710-CW). The complaint alleged that Microsoft was entitled to payments that Microsoft contends are due under the Sublicense Agreement as a result of Sony Computer Entertainment’s satisfaction of the judgment in our lawsuit against Sony Computer Entertainment and payment of other sums to us. In a letter sent to us dated May 1, 2007, Microsoft stated that it believed we owed Microsoft at least $27.5 million, an amount that was subsequently increased to $35.6 million. Although we disputed Microsoft’s allegations, on August 25, 2008 the parties agreed to settle all claims. The Company had made no offers to settle prior to August 25, 2008. Under the terms of the settlement, we paid Microsoft $20.8 million in October 2008.
 
Immersion Corporation v. Mentice AB, Mentice SA, Simbionix USA Corp., and Simbionix Ltd.
 
On April 16, 2008, we announced that our wholly owned subsidiary, Immersion Medical, Inc., filed lawsuits for patent infringement in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Texas against Mentice AB, Mentice SA, Simbionix USA Corp., and Simbionix Ltd (collectively the “Defendants”), seeking damages and injunctive relief. On July 11, 2008, Mentice AB and Mentice SA (collectively, “Mentice”) answered the complaint by denying the material allegations and alleging counterclaims seeking a judicial declaration that the asserted patents were invalid, unenforceable, or not infringed. On July 11, 2008, Simbionix USA Corp. and Simbionix Ltd, (collectively, “Simbionix”) filed a motion to stay or dismiss the lawsuit, and a motion to transfer venue for convenience to Ohio. On August 7, 2008, we filed our opposition to both motions filed by Simbionix. The court has not ruled on the pending motions. On December 2, 2008, the court held a status conference in which it set a trial date for December 5, 2011 and a claim construction hearing for June 5, 2011.
 
We intend to vigorously prosecute this lawsuit.
 
Item 4.   Submission of Matters to a Vote of Security Holders
 
No matters were submitted to a vote of security holders in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2008.


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PART II
 
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
Our common stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “IMMR.” The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low sales prices for our common stock on such market.
 
                 
    High     Low  
 
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2008
               
Fourth Quarter
  $ 6.35     $ 2.72  
Third Quarter
  $ 7.92     $ 5.22  
Second Quarter
  $ 11.82     $ 6.43  
First Quarter
  $ 13.38     $ 6.61  
Fiscal year ended December 31, 2007
               
Fourth Quarter
  $ 18.60     $ 12.01  
Third Quarter
  $ 20.68     $ 12.00  
Second Quarter
  $ 15.28     $ 8.80  
First Quarter
  $ 9.90     $ 6.71  
 
On February 23, 2009, the closing price was $3.86 and there were 142 holders of record of our common stock. Because many of such shares are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders, we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.
 
Issuer Repurchases of Equity Securities
 
Below is a summary of stock repurchases for the quarter ending December 31, 2008. See Note 10 of our consolidated financial statements for information regarding our stock repurchase program.
 
                         
                Approximate Dollar
 
          Average
    Value that May
 
    Shares
    Price per
    Yet Be Purchased
 
    Repurchased(2)     Share     Under the Program  
 
Program/Period(1)
                       
Beginning approximate dollar value available to be repurchased as of September 30, 2008
                  $ 36,648,689  
October 1 — October 31, 2008
    920,000     $ 5.23          
November 1 — November 30, 2008
    40,000     $ 5.75          
December 1 — December 31, 2008
                   
                         
Total shares repurchased
    960,000     $ 5.25       5,038,040  
                         
Ending approximate dollar value that may be repurchased under the Program as of December 31, 2008
                  $ 31,610,649  
                         
 
 
(1) On November 1, 2007, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $50,000,000. This share repurchase authorization has no expiration date and does not require us to repurchase a specific number of shares. The timing and amount of any share repurchase will depend on the share price, corporate and regulatory requirements, economic and market conditions, and other factors. The repurchase authorization may be modified, suspended, or discontinued at any time. We have currently stopped repurchasing shares under this share repurchase program.
 
(2) All shares were repurchased on the open market as part of the plan publicly announced on November 1, 2007. The repurchases were effected by a single broker in market transactions at prevailing market prices pursuant to a trading plan designed to satisfy the conditions of Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
 
Dividend Policy
 
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock and we do not anticipate paying cash dividends in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain any earnings to fund future growth, product development, and operations.


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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
 
The following selected consolidated financial data is qualified in its entirety by, and should be read in conjunction with, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
 
                                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006     2005     2004  
    (In thousands, except per share data)  
 
STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
                                       
Revenues
  $ 36,535     $ 34,702     $ 27,853     $ 24,277     $ 23,763  
Cost and expenses(1)
    82,842       (90,974 )     36,806       36,177       44,155  
Operating income (loss)
    (46,307 )     125,676       (8,953 )     (11,900 )     (20,392 )
Net income (loss)
    (47,685 )     117,018       (10,424 )     (13,085 )     (20,738 )
Net income (loss) per share
                                       
Basic
  $ (1.61 )   $ 4.23     $ (0.42 )   $ (0.54 )   $ (0.91 )
Diluted
  $ (1.61 )   $ 3.71     $ (0.42 )   $ (0.54 )   $ (0.91 )
Shares used in calculating net loss per share
                                       
Basic
    29,575       27,662       24,556       24,027       22,698  
Diluted
    29,575       31,667       24,556       24,027       22,698  
 
                                         
    December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006     2005     2004  
    (In thousands)  
 
BALANCE SHEET DATA:
                                       
Cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments
  $ 85,743     $ 138,112     $ 32,012     $ 28,171     $ 25,538  
Working capital
    84,976       143,075       33,657       28,885       23,088  
Total assets
    113,191       168,368       50,015       44,760       42,250  
Long-term debt, less current portion
                18,122       17,490       16,917  
Long-term customer advance from Microsoft. 
                15,000       15,000       15,000  
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)
    81,423       141,787       (22,992 )     (16,795 )     (5,967 )
 
 
(1) 2007 results include litigation settlements, conclusions, and patent license income of $134.9 million.
 
Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
 
This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The forward-looking statements involve risks and uncertainties. Forward-looking statements are identified by words such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “may,” “will,” and other similar expressions. However, these words are not the only way we identify forward-looking statements. In addition, any statements, which refer to expectations, projections, or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, are forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements as a result of a number of factors, including those set forth in Item 1A,“Risk Factors,” those described elsewhere in this report, and those described in our other reports filed with the SEC. We caution you not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report, and we undertake no obligation to release the results of any revisions to these forward-looking statements that could occur after the filing of this report.


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Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
 
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates and assumptions, including those related to revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, bad debts, inventory reserves, short-term investments, warranty obligations, patents and intangible assets, contingencies, and litigation. We base our estimates and assumptions on historical experience and on various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates and assumptions.
 
We believe the following are our most critical accounting policies as they require our significant judgments and estimates in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements:
 
Revenue Recognition
 
We recognize revenues in accordance with applicable accounting standards, including SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 104, “Revenue Recognition” (“SAB No. 104”), Emerging Issues Task Force (“EITF”) No. 00-21 (“EITF No. 00-21”), “Accounting for Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables,” American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (“AICPA”) Statement of Position (“SOP”) 81-1 “Accounting for Performance for Construction-Type and Certain Production-Type Contracts” (“SOP 81-1”), and AICPA SOP 97-2, “Software Revenue Recognition” (“SOP 97-2”), as amended. Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or service has been rendered, the fee is fixed and determinable, and collectability is probable. We derive our revenues from three principal sources: royalty and license fees, product sales, and development contracts.
 
Royalty and license revenue — We recognize royalty and license revenue based on royalty reports or related information received from the licensee as well as time-based licenses of our intellectual property portfolio. Up-front payments under license agreements are deferred and recognized as revenue either based on the royalty reports received or amortized over the license period depending on the nature of the agreement. Advance payments under license agreements that also require us to provide future services to the licensee are deferred and recognized over the service period when vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) related to the value of the services does not exist.
 
We generally recognize revenue from our licensees under one or a combination of the following license models:
 
     
License revenue model
 
Revenue recognition
 
Perpetual license of intellectual property portfolio based on per unit royalties, no services contracted.   Based on royalty reports received from licensees. No further obligations to licensee exist.
Time-based license of intellectual property portfolio with up-front payments and/or annual minimum royalty requirements, no services contracted. Licensees have certain rights to updates to the intellectual property portfolio during the contract period.   Based on straight-line amortization of annual minimum/up-front payment recognized over contract period or annual minimum period.
Perpetual license of intellectual property portfolio or technology license along with contract for development work.   Based on cost-to-cost percentage-of-completion accounting method over the service period or completed contract method. Obligation to licensee exists until development work is complete.
License of software or technology, no modification necessary, no services contracted.   Up-front revenue recognition based on SOP 97-2 criteria or EITF No. 00-21, as applicable.


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Individual contracts may have characteristics that do not fall within a specific license model or may have characteristics of a combination of license models. Under those circumstances, we recognize revenue in accordance with SAB No. 104, EITF No. 00-21, SOP 81-1, and SOP 97-2, as amended, to guide the accounting treatment for each individual contract. See also the discussions regarding “Multiple element arrangements” below. If the information received from our licensees regarding royalties is incorrect or inaccurate, our revenues in future periods may be adversely affected. To date, none of the information we have received from our licensees has caused any material reduction in future period revenues.
 
Product sales — We recognize revenues from product sales when the product is shipped, provided the other revenue recognition criteria are met, including that collection is determined to be probable and no significant obligation remains. We sell our products with warranties ranging from three to sixty months. We record the estimated warranty costs during the quarter the revenue is recognized. Historically, warranty-related costs and related accruals have not been significant. We offer a general right of return on the MicroScribe product line for 14 days after purchase. We recognize revenue at the time of shipment of a MicroScribe digitizer and provide an accrual for potential returns based on historical experience. We offer no other general right of return on our products.
 
Development contracts and other revenue — Development contracts and other revenue is comprised of professional services (consulting services and/or development contracts), customer support, and extended warranty contracts. Development contract revenues are recognized under the cost-to-cost percentage-of-completion accounting method based on physical completion of the work to be performed or completed contract method. Losses on contracts are recognized when determined. Revisions in estimates are reflected in the period in which the conditions become known. Customer support and extended warranty contract revenue is recognized ratably over the contractual period.
 
Multiple element arrangements — We enter into revenue arrangements in which the customer purchases a combination of patent, technology, and/or software licenses, products, professional services, support, and extended warranties (multiple element arrangements). When VSOE of fair value exists for all elements, we allocate revenue to each element based on the relative fair value of each of the elements. If vendor specific objective evidence of fair value do not exist, the revenue is generally recorded over the term of the contract.
 
Our revenue recognition policies are significant because our revenues are a key component of our results of operations. In addition, our revenue recognition determines the timing of certain expenses, such as commissions and royalties. Revenue results are difficult to predict, and any shortfall in revenue or delay in recognizing revenue could cause our operating results to vary significantly from quarter to quarter and could result in greater or future operating losses.
 
Stock-based Compensation
 
We account for stock-based compensation in accordance with SFAS No. 123R “Share-Based Payment” (“SFAS No. 123R”). We elected the modified-prospective method, under which prior periods are not revised for comparative purposes. Under the fair value recognition provisions of this statement, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period.
 
Valuation and amortization method — We use the Black-Scholes model, single-option approach to determine the fair value of stock options, and ESPP shares. All share-based payment awards are amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which are generally the vesting periods. The determination of the fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors which impact the expected term and forfeiture rates, our expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, risk-free interest rate, and expected dividends.


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Expected term — We estimate the expected term of options granted by calculating the average term from our historical stock option exercise experience. We used the simplified method as prescribed by SAB No. 107 for options granted prior to January 1, 2008.
 
Expected volatility — We estimate the volatility of our common stock taking into consideration our historical stock price movement, the volatility of stock prices of companies of similar size with similar businesses, if any, and our expected future stock price trends based on known or anticipated events.
 
Risk-free interest rate — We base the risk-free interest rate that we use in the option pricing model on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with remaining terms similar to the expected term on the options.
 
Expected dividend — We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future and therefore use an expected dividend yield of zero in the option pricing model.
 
Forfeitures — We are required to estimate future forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. We use historical data to estimate pre-vesting option forfeitures and record stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. Changes in estimated forfeitures will be recognized through a cumulative catch-up adjustment in the period of change and will also impact the amount of compensation expense to be recognized in future periods.
 
If factors change and we employ different assumptions for estimating stock-based compensation expense in future periods, or if we decide to use a different valuation model, the future periods may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current period and could materially affect our operating results.
 
The Black-Scholes model was developed for use in estimating the fair value of traded options that have no vesting restrictions and are fully transferable, characteristics not present in our option grants and ESPP shares. Existing valuation models, including the Black-Scholes and lattice binomial models, may not provide reliable measures of the fair values of our stock-based compensation. Consequently, there is a risk that our estimates of the fair values of our stock-based compensation awards on the grant dates may bear little resemblance to the actual values realized upon the exercise, expiration, early termination, or forfeiture of those stock-based payments in the future. Certain stock-based payments, such as employee stock options, may expire and be worthless or otherwise result in zero intrinsic value as compared to the fair values originally estimated on the grant date and reported in our financial statements. Alternatively, value may be realized from these instruments that are significantly higher than the fair values originally estimated on the grant date and reported in our financial statements. There currently is no market-based mechanism or other practical application to verify the reliability and accuracy of the estimates stemming from these valuation models, nor is there a means to compare and adjust the estimates to actual values.
 
See Note 10 to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding the SFAS No. 123R disclosures.
 
Accounting for Income Taxes
 
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, income tax expense is recognized for the amount of taxes payable or refundable for the current year. In addition, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future tax consequences of temporary differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities, and for operating losses and tax credit carryforwards. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized and are reversed at such time that realization is believed to be more likely than not. Management must make assumptions, judgments, and estimates to determine our current provision for income taxes and also our deferred tax assets and liabilities and any valuation allowance to be recorded against a deferred tax asset.
 
Our judgments, assumptions, and estimates relative to the current provision for income tax take into account current tax laws, our interpretation of current tax laws, and possible outcomes of current and future audits conducted by foreign and domestic tax authorities. We have established reserves for income taxes to address potential exposures involving tax positions that could be challenged by tax authorities. Although we believe our judgments, assumptions, and estimates are reasonable, changes in tax laws or our interpretation of tax laws and any future tax audits could significantly impact the amounts provided for income taxes in our consolidated financial statements.


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Our assumptions, judgments, and estimates relative to the value of a deferred tax asset take into account predictions of the amount and category of future taxable income, such as income from operations or capital gains income. Actual operating results and the underlying amount and category of income in future years could render inaccurate our current assumptions, judgments, and estimates of recoverable net deferred taxes. Any of the assumptions, judgments, and estimates mentioned above could cause our actual income tax obligations to differ from our estimates, thus materially impacting our financial position and results of operations.
 
Litigation Settlements, Conclusions, and Patent License
 
In March 2007, we announced the conclusion of our patent infringement litigation against Sony Computer Entertainment at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Sony Computer Entertainment satisfied the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California judgment against it. As of March 19, 2007, we entered into a new business agreement with Sony Computer Entertainment. We determined that the conclusion of our litigation with Sony Computer Entertainment did not trigger any payment obligations under our Microsoft agreements. However, on June 18, 2007, Microsoft filed a complaint against us in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging breach of our “Sublicense Agreement” dated July 25, 2003 and seeked damages, specific performance, declaratory judgment, and attorneys’ fees and costs. At a court ordered mediation meeting on December 11, 2007, Microsoft indicated they believe the amount owed to be $35.6 million. On August 25, 2008, the parties agreed to settle Microsoft’s breach of contract claim as well as our counterclaim. The settlement arrangement provided that we pay Microsoft $20.8 million, which we paid in October 2008, and the case was dismissed.
 
Short-term Investments
 
Our short-term investments consist primarily of highly liquid commercial paper and government agency securities purchased with an original or remaining maturity of greater than 90 days on the date of purchase. We classify all debt securities with readily determinable market values as “available-for-sale” in accordance with SFAS No. 115. Even though the stated maturity dates of these debt securities may be one year or more beyond the balance sheet date, we have classified all debt securities as short-term investments in accordance with Accounting Research Bulletin No. 43, Chapter 3A, “Working Capital — Current Assets and Current Liabilities,” as they are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold during our normal operating cycle. These investments are carried at fair market value with unrealized gains and losses considered to be temporary in nature reported as a separate component of other comprehensive income (loss) within stockholders’ equity.
 
We follow the guidance provided by Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Staff Position (“FSP”) 115-1/124-1 and EITF No. 03-01 “The Meaning of Other-Than-Temporary Impairment and Its Application to Certain Investments” to assess whether our investments with unrealized loss positions are other than temporarily impaired. Realized gains and losses and declines in value judged to be other than temporary are determined based on the specific identification method and are reported in the consolidated statement of operations. Factors considered in determining whether a loss is temporary include the length of time and extent to which fair value has been less than the cost basis, the financial condition and near-term prospects of the investee, and our intent and ability to hold the investment for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in market value.
 
Effective January 1, 2008, we adopted the provisions of SFAS No. 157, which defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements required under other accounting pronouncements. SFAS No. 157 clarifies that fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. SFAS No. 157 also requires that a fair value measurement reflect the assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on the best information available. Assumptions include the risks inherent in a particular valuation technique (such as a pricing model) and/or the risks inherent in the inputs to the model.
 
SFAS No. 157 establishes a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for


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identical assets or liabilities (level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable inputs (level 3 measurements). The three levels of the fair value hierarchy under SFAS No. 157 are described below:
 
Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical unrestricted assets or liabilities;
 
Level 2: Quoted prices in markets that are less active or financial instruments for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly;
 
Level 3: Prices or valuations that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable.
 
A financial instrument’s level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
 
In February 2008, the Financial FASB issued FSP No. 157-2 that delays the effective date of SFAS No. 157 for nonfinancial assets and nonfinancial liabilities, except for items that are recognized or disclosed at fair value in the financial statements on a recurring basis (at least annually) until fiscal years beginning after November 15, 2008. The delay is intended to allow the FASB and constituents additional time to consider the effect of various implementation issues that have arisen, or that may arise, from the application of SFAS No. 157. We continue to assess the impact that FSP 157-2 may have on our consolidated financial position and results of operations.
 
Further information about the application of SFAS No. 157 may be found in Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements.
 
Recovery of Accounts Receivable
 
We maintain allowances for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from our review and assessment of our customers’ ability to make required payments. If the financial condition of one or more of our customers were to deteriorate, resulting in an impairment of their ability to make payments, additional allowances might be required. To date such estimated losses have been within our expectations.
 
Inventory Reserves
 
We reduce our inventory value for estimated obsolete and slow moving inventory in an amount equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions. If actual future demand and market conditions are less favorable than those projected by management, additional inventory write-downs may be required.
 
Product Return and Warranty Reserves
 
We provide for estimated costs of future anticipated product returns and warranty obligations based on historical experience when related revenues are recognized, and we defer warranty-related revenue over the related warranty term.
 
Intangible Assets
 
We have acquired patents and other intangible assets. In addition, we capitalize the external legal and filing fees associated with patents and trademarks. We assess the recoverability of our intangible assets, and we must make assumptions regarding estimated future cash flows and other factors to determine the fair value of the respective assets that affect our consolidated financial statements. If these estimates or related assumptions change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for these assets. We amortize our intangible assets related to patents and trademarks, once they issue, over their estimated useful lives, generally 10 years. Future changes in the estimated useful life could affect the amount of future period amortization expense that we will incur. During 2008, we capitalized costs associated with patents and trademarks of $2.4 million. Our total amortization expense for the same period for all intangible assets was $779,000.


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Restructuring Costs
 
We calculate our Restructuring costs based upon our estimate of workforce reduction costs, asset impairment charges, and other appropriate charges resulting from a restructuring. The Company accounts for restructuring costs in accordance with SFAS No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” and SFAS No. 146, “Accounting for Costs Associated with Exit of Disposal Activities” Based on our assumptions, judgments, and estimates, we determine whether we need to record an impairment charge to reduce the value of the asset carried on our balance sheet to its estimated fair value. Assumptions, judgments and estimates about future values are complex and often subjective. They can be affected by a variety of factors, including external factors such as industry and economic trends, and internal factors such as changes in our business strategy.
 
The above listing is not intended to be a comprehensive list of all of our accounting policies. In many cases, the accounting treatment of a particular transaction is specifically dictated by GAAP, with no need for management’s judgment in their application. There are also areas in which management’s judgment in selecting any available alternative would not produce a materially different result.
 
Results of Operations
 
Overview of 2008
 
During 2008, we achieved several milestones, including continued growth in revenues. We continued to invest in research, development, sales, and marketing across all our key business segments. Key events in the year were as follows:
 
  •  Revenue growth of 5% in 2008 over 2007, and royalty and license revenue growth of 20% in 2008 over 2007.
 
  •  We continued to have strong growth of Mobility revenues as shown by the 106% increase in 2008 over 2007.
 
  •  We announced the divestiture of our 3D product line, which we expect to complete in 2009.
 
  •  In August 2008, we settled our litigation with Microsoft and we agreed to make a one-time payment to Microsoft in the amount of $20.8 million, which was recorded in the third quarter of 2008 and paid in October 2008.
 
With our planned divestiture of the 3D product line we hope to achieve cost reductions that can positively impact our future financial results. With our plan to move the medical operating segment to San Jose, we hope to achieve additional cost reductions in 2009. In 2009, we expect to continue to focus on the execution of plans in our established businesses to increase revenue and make selected investments for product-based solutions for longer-term growth areas. Our success could be limited by several factors, including the current macro-economic climate, the timely release of our new products and our licensees’ products, continued market acceptance of our products and technology, the introduction of new products by existing or new competitors, and the cost of ongoing litigation. For a further discussion of these and other risk factors, see Item 1A — “Risk Factors.”


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The following table sets forth our statement of operations data as a percentage of total revenues:
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006  
 
Revenues:
                       
Royalty and license
    39.0 %     34.3 %     26.2 %
Product sales
    53.4       53.4       61.3  
Development contracts and other
    7.6       12.3       12.5  
                         
Total revenues
    100.0       100.0       100.0  
                         
Costs and expenses:
                       
Cost of product sales (exclusive of amortization of intangibles shown separately below)
    34.0       25.4       25.8  
Sales and marketing
    46.1       33.1       45.2  
Research and development
    34.4       29.0       27.3  
General and administrative
    51.8       36.2       36.2  
Amortization of intangibles
    2.1       2.9       3.5  
Litigation settlements, conclusions, and patent license
    56.8       (388.8 )     (5.9 )
Restructuring costs
    1.5              
                         
Total costs and expenses
    226.7       (262.2 )     132.1  
                         
Operating income (loss)
    (126.7 )     362.2       (32.1 )
Interest and other income
    11.1       16.9       1.0  
Interest and other expense
    (0.7 )     (3.0 )     (5.8 )
                         
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
    (116.3 )     376.1       (36.9 )
Provision for income taxes
    (14.2 )     (38.9 )     (0.5 )
                         
Net income (loss)
    (130.5 )%     337.2 %     (37.4 )%
                         
 
Comparison of Years Ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006
 
Revenues
 
                                         
    2008     % Change     2007     % Change     2006  
    ($ in thousands)  
 
Royalty and license
  $ 14,254       20 %   $ 11,881       63 %   $ 7,304  
Product sales
    19,504       5 %     18,541       9 %     17,083  
Development contracts and other
    2,777       (35 )%     4,280       23 %     3,466  
                                         
Total revenue
  $ 36,535       5 %   $ 34,702       25 %   $ 27,853  
                                         
 
Fiscal 2008 Compared to Fiscal 2007
 
Total Revenue — Our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2008 increased by $1.8 million, or 5%, to $36.5 million, from $34.7 million in 2007.
 
Royalty and license revenue — Royalty and license revenue is comprised of royalties earned on sales by our licensees and license fees charged for our intellectual property portfolio. Royalty and license revenue increased by $2.4 million or 20% from 2007 to 2008 and was all from our Touch segment. The increase in royalty and license revenue was primarily a result of an increase in mobile device license and royalty revenue of $2.1 million and an increase in gaming royalties of $1.2 million, offset in part by a decrease in royalties for touch interface products of $942,000.
 
Mobile device license and royalty revenue increased primarily due to the increase in the shipment of TouchSense enabled phones by LG Electronics that began in the second quarter of 2007, the signing of a new license contract with mobile device manufacturer Nokia at the end of the second quarter of 2007, and the shipment of additional TouchSense enabled phones by our licensees in 2008.


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The increase in gaming royalties compared to 2007 was mainly due to previously deferred royalty revenues from ISLLC totaling $1.0 million which was recognized after we concluded our litigation with them. There was also an increase in royalty and license revenue from an increase in sales of new steering wheel products from Logitech. In addition, there was a full year of royalty and license revenue from first-party gaming licensee Sony Computer Entertainment that increased revenue year over year. Although the revenue from our third-party peripheral licensees has generally continued to decline primarily due to i) the reduced sales of past generation video console systems due to the launches of the next-generation console models from Microsoft (Xbox 360), Sony (PlayStation 3), and Nintendo (Wii), and ii) the decline in third-party market share of aftermarket game console controllers due to the launch of next-generation peripherals by manufacturers of console systems, we are seeing the decline begin to stabilize, as manifested by the release of new steering wheel products from Logitech for the PlayStation 3.
 
Sony announced on May 8, 2006 that the vibration feature that is currently available on PlayStation (PS1) and PlayStation 2 (PS2) console systems would be removed from the new PlayStation 3 (PS3) console system. The PS3 console system was launched in late 2006 in the United States and Japan without native vibration or any force feedback capability of any kind. In the first quarter of 2007, Sony released an update to the PS3 console system that offered limited vibration and force feedback support for some older PS1 and PS2 games and controllers. In September 2007, Sony announced that it would fully restore vibration feedback features for the PS3 console system. The new PS3 DualShock 3 controllers with vibration feedback were released in Japan in November 2007 as standalone products sold separately from the PS3 console system. In April 2008, Sony released the PS3 DualShock 3 controller in the U.S. and released a version in Europe in July of 2008. While a very limited number of third party PS3 vibration and force feedback products have been announced recently, including various steering wheel models from Logitech, we do not know to what extent Sony will foster the market for other third-party PS3 gaming peripherals with vibration feedback. To the extent Sony discourages or impedes third-party controller makers from making more PS3 controllers with vibration feedback, our licensing revenue from third-party PS3 peripherals will continue to be severely limited.
 
Based on our litigation conclusion and new business agreement entered into with Sony Computer Entertainment in March 2007 (see Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements for more discussion), we will recognize a minimum of $30.0 million as royalty and license revenue from March 2007 through March 2017, approximately $750,000 per quarter. For the Microsoft Xbox 360 video console system launched in November 2005, Microsoft has, to date, not broadly licensed third parties to produce game controllers. Because our gaming royalties come mainly from third-party manufacturers, unless Microsoft broadens its licenses to third-party controller makers, particularly with respect to wireless controllers for Xbox 360, our gaming royalty revenue may decline. Additionally, Microsoft is now making touch-enabled wheels covered by its royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable license to our worldwide portfolio of patents that could compete with our licensees’ current or future products for which we earn per unit royalties. For the Nintendo Wii video console system launched in December 2006, Nintendo has, to date, not yet broadly licensed third parties to produce game controllers for its Wii game console. Because our gaming royalties come mainly from third-party manufacturers, unless Nintendo broadens its licenses to third-party controller makers, our gaming royalty revenue may decline.
 
Touch interface product royalties decreased mainly due to the recognition of certain automotive royalty payments in the second quarter of 2007 that did not recur. In addition, BMW has begun to remove our technology from certain controller systems, that also caused automotive royalties to decline. We expect that this removal of our technology from certain controller systems will cause our automotive royalty revenue to decline in the future, which may be partially offset by new vehicles from other manufactures brought to market.
 
Product sales — Product sales increased by $963,000 or 5% from 2007 to 2008. The increase in product sales was primarily due to increased medical product sales of $746,000, mainly due to increased sales of our endoscopy, laparoscopy, and arthroscopy simulator platforms partially offset by decreases in our endovascular simulators and a slight decrease in our Virtual IV simulators. These increases were primarily due to continued expansion of international sales for all of our simulation platforms including increased sales of laparoscopy simulators driven by our increased emphasis on the laparoscopy platform and modules as well as the launch of an arthroscopy simulator in the first half of 2008. Touch interface products increased by $96,000 due to additional sales of touchscreen and touch panel components, rotary modules, and arcade entertainment products. 3D product sales increased by $122,000 due to additional sales of our Microscribe, CyberGrasp, CyberGlove, and CyberTouch products.


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Development contracts and other revenue — Development contracts and other revenue decreased by $1.5 million or 35% from 2007 to 2008. Development contracts and other revenue is comprised of revenue on commercial and government contracts. The decrease was mainly attributable to a decrease in medical contract revenue of $1.3 million due to the completion of work performed under medical contracts that occurred in 2007 through the first six months of 2008, and decreased touch interface product contract revenue of $564,000 primarily due to contracts being completed during the year. Partially offsetting this, there was increased revenue recognized on mobile device development contracts and support of $370,000. We do not currently have any government projects in development. We continue to transition our engineering resources from certain commercial development contract efforts to product development efforts that focus on leveraging our existing sales and channel distribution capabilities.
 
Fiscal 2007 Compared to Fiscal 2006
 
Total Revenue — Our total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2007 increased by $6.8 million or 25% to $34.7 million, from $27.9 million in 2006.
 
Royalty and license revenue — Royalty and license revenue increased by $4.6 million or 63% from 2006 to 2007. The increase in royalty and license revenue was primarily a result of an increase in gaming royalties of $2.4 million, an increase in mobile device license and royalty revenue of $1.3 million, and an increase in touch interface product royalties of $1.0 million, offset in part by a decrease in medical license fees of $147,000.
 
The increase in gaming royalties compared to 2006 was mainly due to new royalty and license revenue from first-party gaming licensee Sony Computer Entertainment. During 2007, we recognized $2.4 million of revenue from Sony Computer Entertainment. Sony Computer Entertainment became a licensee in March 2007, and accordingly there was no license revenue from Sony Computer Entertainment in the prior year comparative period. In addition, revenues from our third-party peripheral licensees generally continued to decline primarily due to reduced sales of past generation video console systems and the significant decline in third-party market share of aftermarket game console controllers.
 
Mobile device license and royalty revenue increased due to the shipment of more TouchSense enabled phones by Samsung and LG Electronics, and the signing of a new license contract with mobile device manufacturer Nokia at the end of the second quarter of 2007. Touch interface product royalties increased due to increased licensee revenue from additional products licensed in the automotive market and the recognition of certain one-time royalty payments in the second quarter of 2007. The decrease in medical royalty and license revenue was primarily due to a decrease in license revenue from our license and development agreements with Medtronic.
 
Product sales — Product sales increased by $1.5 million or 9% from 2006 to 2007. The increase in product sales was primarily due to increased medical product sales of $1.1 million, mainly due to increased sales of our endoscopy and Virtual IV simulator platforms. This increase in product sales was a result of pursuing a product growth strategy for our medical business, which includes leveraging our industry alliances, resulting in significant increases in the sales of our Virtual IV platform and expanding international sales, resulting in additional increases in revenue from our endoscopy platform. Sales of our touch interface products increased by $390,000 including increased sales of touchscreen and touch panel components, force feedback electronics for arcade gaming, and rotary modules. The increase in touch interface products is attributable to the successful introduction of a customers’ product in which our arcade gaming boards are used as well as increased shipments of our rotary modules as a result of design wins.
 
Development contracts and other revenue — Development contracts and other revenue increased by $814,000 or 23% from 2006 to 2007. Commercial contract revenue increased by $1.8 million due to increased medical contract revenue primarily from Medtronic for four new development contracts completed in 2007, increased contract revenue from the completion of one mobile device development contract, and increased revenue from new and continuing mobile device development contracts, partially offset by a decrease in touch interface product contract revenue. Partially offsetting the increase in commercial contract revenue was a decrease in government contract work of $1.1 million primarily due to the completion of work performed under a medical government contract in 2006.


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Cost of Product Sales
 
                                         
    2008     % Change     2007     % Change     2006  
    ($ in thousands)  
 
Cost of product sales
  $ 12,441       41 %   $ 8,808       22 %   $ 7,193  
% of product sales
    64 %             48 %             42 %
 
Our cost of product sales (exclusive of amortization of intangibles) consists primarily of materials, labor, and overhead. There is no cost of product sales associated with royalty and license revenue or development contract revenue. Cost of product sales increased by $3.6 million or 41% from 2007 to 2008. The increase in cost of product sales was primarily due to inventory impairment charges and charges resulting from noncancelable inventory purchase orders due to the divesting of the 3D product line of $2.1 million, an increase of overhead costs of $411,000, increased direct material costs of $402,000, increased provision for warranty and repair costs of $212,000, an increase in excess and obsolete inventory provisions of $159,000, and increased royalties of $133,000. Inventory impairment charges and charges resulting from non-cancelable purchase orders, was as a result of the announcement in the fourth quarter of 2008 that the Company is divesting its 3D product line (see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements for more discussion). Overhead costs increased, in part, as a result of increased salary expense from additional headcount and other costs of programs to improve quality processes within our manufacturing operations. The increase in direct material costs was mainly a result of increased product sales and a higher percentage of sales of certain medical products with higher costs. Royalty costs increased due to increased sales of certain medical products with associated royalty costs. Cost of product sales increased as a percentage of product revenue to 64% in 2008 from 48% in 2007. This increase is mainly due to the charges resulting from our announced divesting of our 3D product discussed above, the increased overhead costs mentioned above, and sales increase of certain medical products with higher costs in the product sales mix. We expect our gross margin to trend upward somewhat during 2009 based on the resulting changes to our product mix due to reduced lower margin 3D sales.
 
Cost of product sales increased by $1.6 million or 22% from 2006 to 2007. The increase in cost of product sales was primarily due to an increase of overhead costs of $925,000, increased direct material costs of $594,000, and increased freight of $163,000, partially offset by decreased variances of $93,000. The increase in direct material costs was primarily a result of increased product sales. Overhead costs increased, in part, as a result of increased salary expense primarily due to increased headcount to support programs to improve quality processes as well as other improvements within our manufacturing operations that we anticipate will continue in 2008. Cost of product sales increased as a percentage of product revenue to 48% in 2007 from 42% in 2006. This increase is mainly due to the increased overhead costs mentioned above as well as increased sales of our lower margin Virtual IV medical simulator changing the sales mix.
 
Expenses
 
                                         
    2008     % Change     2007     % Change     2006  
    ($ in thousands)  
 
Sales and marketing
  $ 16,851       47 %   $ 11,493       (9 )%   $ 12,609  
Research and development
    12,555       25 %     10,056       32 %     7,609  
General and administrative
    18,929       51 %     12,567       25 %     10,076  
Amortization of intangibles
    779       (22 )%     1,002       3 %     969  
Litigation conclusions and patent license
    20,750       * %     (134,900 )     * %     (1,650 )
Restructuring costs
    537       * %           * %      
 
 
* Percentage not meaningful.
 
Sales and Marketing — Our sales and marketing expenses are comprised primarily of employee compensation and benefits, sales commissions, advertising, trade shows, brochures, market development funds, travel, and an allocation of facilities costs. Sales and marketing expenses increased by $5.4 million or 47% in 2008 compared to 2007. The increase was primarily due to increased compensation, benefits, and overhead of $2.2 million, increased marketing, advertising, and public relations costs of $1.1 million, increased sales and marketing travel expense of


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$599,000, increased consulting costs of $593,000 to supplement our sales and marketing staff, an increase in bad debt expense of $384,000, increased office and facilities expenses of $308,000, and increased employee recruiting costs of $141,000. The increased sales and marketing expenses were primarily due to an increase in sales and marketing headcount and the expanding of our sales and marketing efforts internationally. In addition, the increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense was mainly due to an increase in sales and marketing headcount, increased compensation for sales and marketing personnel, and increased non-cash stock based compensation charges. We expect to continue to focus our sales and marketing efforts on medical and touch market opportunities to build greater market acceptance for our technologies as well as continue to expand our sales and marketing presence internationally. We will continue to invest in sales and marketing in future periods to exploit market opportunities for our technology.
 
Sales and marketing expenses decreased by $1.1 million or 9% in 2007 compared to 2006. The decrease was mainly the result of reduced compensation, benefits, and overhead expense of $837,000; decreased advertising and marketing expenses including, collateral, product marketing, and public relations costs of $275,000; and decreased sales and marketing travel expense of $237,000, offset in part by a change in bad debt expense of $154,000 and an increase in professional and consulting expenses of $126,000 primarily due to increased employee recruitment fees. The decreased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense was primarily due to a reduction in headcount and decreased stock-based compensation expense offset in part by an increase in variable compensation earned on increased sales and contracts signed during the period.
 
Research and Development — Our research and development expenses are comprised primarily of employee compensation and benefits, consulting fees, tooling and supplies, and an allocation of facilities costs. Research and development expenses increased by $2.5 million or 25% in 2008 compared to 2007. The increase was primarily due to increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense of $1.5 million, increased professional and consulting expense of $585,000 to supplement our engineering staff, and an increase in lab and prototyping expenses of $277,000 in support of sales efforts. The increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense was primarily due to increased research and development headcount and increased non-cash stock-based compensation charges. We expect to move away from custom-engineering projects and move to product-based solutions and believe that continued significant investment in research and development is critical to our future success, and we expect to make significant investments in areas of research and technology development to support future growth.
 
Research and development expenses increased by $2.4 million or 32% in 2007 compared to 2006. The increase was primarily due to increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense of $2.1 million, increased professional and consulting expense of $214,000 to supplement our engineering staff, and an increase in travel of $143,000 in support of sales efforts, offset in part by a decrease in prototyping expenses of $114,000. The increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense was primarily due to increased research and development headcount. Additionally, environmental regulation compliance caused overall research and development expenses to increase for the period.
 
General and Administrative — Our general and administrative expenses are comprised primarily of employee compensation and benefits, legal and professional fees, office supplies, travel, and an allocation of facilities costs. General and administrative expenses increased by $6.4 million or 51% in 2008 compared to 2007. The increase was primarily due to increased legal, professional, and license fee expense of $3.4 million, increased compensation, benefits, and overhead of $2.4 million, increased travel costs of $274,000, and increased supplies and office and facilities expense of $183,000. The increased legal, professional, and license fee expenses were primarily due to increased litigation and other activities that we were engaged in, mainly the litigation with Microsoft; increased consulting costs; and increased recruiting costs due to management changes. The increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense was primarily due to changes in executive personnel that resulted in additional costs, increased general and administrative headcount, increased compensation for general and administrative personnel, and increased non-cash stock-based compensation charges. We expect that the dollar amount of general and administrative expenses to continue to be a significant component of our operating expenses. We will continue to incur costs related to litigation as we continue to assert our intellectual property rights and defend lawsuits brought against us.


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General and administrative expenses increased by $2.5 million or 25% in 2007 compared to 2006. The increase was mainly due to increased legal and professional fee expenses of $2.0 million, increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense of $263,000, increased public company expense of $70,000, and increased bank and investment fees of $56,000. The increased legal and professional fee expenses were primarily due to increased audit, tax, and accounting fees due to the accounting and valuation for Sony Computer Entertainment litigation conclusion and patent license, resolution of a routine SEC review of our prior periodic filings, and income tax related issues; increased general legal and patent costs; and increased consulting costs related to long term strategic planning. The increased compensation, benefits, and overhead expense was primarily due to increased headcount and increased bonus and incentive compensation.
 
Amortization of Intangibles — Our amortization of intangibles is comprised primarily of patent amortization and other intangible amortization. Amortization of intangibles decreased by $223,000 or 22% from 2007 to 2008. The decrease was primarily attributable to some intangible assets reaching full amortization partially offset by an increase from the cost and number of new patents being amortized. Amortization of intangibles increased by $33,000 or 3% from 2006 to 2007. The increase was primarily attributable to the increased cost and number of patents being amortized offset in part by some intangible assets reaching full amortization.
 
Litigation Settlements, Conclusions, and Patent License — Litigation settlements, conclusions, and patent license was $20.8 million of expense for fiscal 2008, all of which related to our settlement with Microsoft, compared to income of $134.9 million for the same period in 2007, a change of $155.7 million. Litigation settlements, conclusions, and patent license increased by $133.2 million in 2007 compared to 2006. For fiscal 2007, the $134.9 million is comprised of $119.9 million related to Sony Computer Entertainment and $15.0 million related to the release of the Microsoft long-term customer advance. The $1.7 million paid to the Company in fiscal 2006 related to a patent infringement case against PDP.
 
In March 2007, we concluded our patent infringement litigation against Sony Computer Entertainment at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. In satisfaction of the Amended Judgment, we received funds totaling $97.3 million, inclusive of the award for past damages, pre-judgment interest and costs, and post-judgment interest. Additionally, we retained $32.4 million of compulsory license fees and interest thereon previously paid to us by Sony Computer Entertainment pursuant to court orders. As of March 19, 2007, both parties entered into an agreement whereby we granted Sony Computer Entertainment and certain of its affiliates a worldwide, non-transferable, non-exclusive license under our patents that have issued, may issue, or claim a priority date before March 2017 for the going forward use, development, manufacture, sale, lease, importation, and distribution of its current and past PlayStation and related products. The license does not cover adult, foundry, medical, automotive, industrial, mobility, or gambling products. Subject to the terms of the agreement, we also granted Sony Computer Entertainment and certain of its affiliates certain other licenses (relating to PlayStation games, backward compatibility of future consoles, and the use of their licensed products with certain third party products), an option to obtain licenses in the future with respect to future gaming products and certain releases and covenants not to sue. Sony Computer Entertainment granted us certain covenants not to sue and agreed to pay us twelve quarterly installments of $1.875 million (for a total of $22.5 million) beginning on March 31, 2007 and ending on December 31, 2009, and may pay us certain other fees and royalty amounts. In total, we will receive a minimum of $152.2 million through the conclusion of the litigation and the separate patent license. In accordance with the guidance from EITF No. 00-21, we allocated the present value of the total payments, equal to $149.9 million, between each element based on their relative fair values. Under this allocation, we recorded $119.9 million as litigation conclusions and patent license income and the remaining $30.0 million was allocated to deferred license revenue. Such deferred revenue was $18.4 million as of December 31, 2008. We recorded $2.4 million and $3.0 million as revenue for the years ended December 31, 2007, and 2008, respectively. On December 31, 2008, we had recorded $5.4 million of the $30.0 million as revenue and will record the remaining $24.6 million as revenue, on a straight-line basis, over the remaining capture period of the patents licensed, ending March 19, 2017. We accounted for future payments in accordance with Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 21 (“ABP No. 21”). Under APB No. 21, we determined the present value of the $22.5 million future payments to equal $20.2 million. We are accounting for the difference of $2.3 million as interest income as each $1.875 million quarterly payment installment becomes due. This amount is accounted for at December 31, 2008 in deferred revenue.


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Under the terms of a series of agreements that we entered into with Microsoft in 2003, in the event we had elected to settle the action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California entitled Immersion Corporation v. Sony Computer Entertainment of America, Inc., Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. and Microsoft Corporation, Case No. C02-00710 CW (WDB), as such action pertains to Sony Computer Entertainment, and grant certain rights, we would be obligated to pay Microsoft a minimum of $15.0 million for amounts up to $100.0 million received from Sony Computer Entertainment, plus 25% of amounts over $100.0 million up to $150.0 million, and 17.5% of amounts over $150.0 million. The patent infringement litigation with Sony Computer Entertainment was concluded in March 2007 at the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit without settlement. We determined that the conclusion of our litigation with Sony Computer Entertainment did not trigger any payment obligations under our Microsoft agreements. Accordingly, the liability of $15.0 million that was in the financial statements at December 31, 2006 was extinguished, and we accounted for this sum during 2007 as litigation conclusions and patent license income. However, on June 18, 2007, Microsoft filed a complaint against us in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging one claim for breach of a contract. In a letter sent to us dated May 1, 2007, Microsoft stated that it believed we owed Microsoft at least $27.5 million, an amount that was subsequently increased to $35.6 million. Although we disputed Microsoft’s allegations, on August 25, 2008 the parties agreed to settle all claims. We made no offers to settle prior to August 25, 2008. Under the terms of the settlement, we paid Microsoft $20.8 million in October 2008.
 
In February 2006, we announced that we had settled our legal differences in our complaint for patent infringement against PDP and that both parties had agreed to dismiss all claims and counterclaims relating to this matter. In addition to the Confidential Settlement Agreement, PDP entered into a worldwide license to our patents for vibro-tactile devices in the consumer gaming peripheral field of use. According to the terms of the agreement, PDP will make royalty payments to us based on sales by PDP of spinning mass vibro-tactile gamepads, steering wheels, and other game controllers for dedicated gaming consoles, such as the Sony PS1 and PS2, the Nintendo GameCube, and the Microsoft Xbox and Xbox 360. For the year ended December 31, 2006 PDP paid us $1.7 million, and we recorded that amount as litigation conclusions and patent license income.
 
Restructuring — Restructuring costs consist primarily of severance benefits paid as the result of the reduction of workforce due to the announced divesting of the 3D product line of $105,000, severance benefits paid as the result of the reduction of workforce due to business changes in our Touch segment of $142,000, and reserves taken against capitalized patent costs of $255,000 and fixed assets of $20,000 due to the proposed divesting of the 3D product line. There were no restructuring charges incurred in the years ended 2006 or 2007. We do not anticipate any further costs in future periods relating to these workforce reductions and divesting of the 3D product line.
 
Interest and Other
 
                                         
    2008     % Change     2007     % Change     2006  
    ($ in thousands)  
 
Interest and other income
  $ 4,046       (31 )%   $ 5,854       2029 %   $ 275  
Interest and other expense
    (250 )     (76 )%     (1,024 )     (36 )%     (1,602 )
 
Interest and Other Income — Interest and other income consists primarily of interest income and dividend income from cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments.  Interest and other income decreased by $1.8 million from 2007 to 2008. This was primarily the result of decreased interest income due to a reduction in cash equivalents and short-term investments and reduced interest rates on cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments.
 
Interest and other income increased by $5.6 million from 2006 to 2007 as a result of increased interest income earned on increased cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments invested after the receipt of the judgment from Sony Computer Entertainment in March 2007. Interest income earned on the payments from Sony Computer Entertainment up until the judgment became final had been included in deferred revenue.
 
Interest and Other Expense — Interest and other expense consists primarily of interest and accretion expense on our 5% Senior Subordinated Convertible Debentures (“5% Convertible Debentures”) and accretion and dividend expense on our long-term customer advance from Microsoft along with impairment losses on long term notes receivable. Interest and other expense decreased by $774,000 from 2007 to 2008 due to the elimination of interest


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expense from the conversion and redemption of our 5% Convertible Debentures during the third quarter of 2007 partially offset by impairment losses on long term notes receivable. Interest and other expense decreased by $578,000 from 2006 to 2007 due to the conversion and redemption of our 5% Convertible Debentures during the third quarter of 2007. See Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements.
 
Provision for Taxes
 
                                         
    2008     % Change     2007     % Change     2006  
    ($ in thousands)  
 
Provision for income taxes
  $ 5,174       (62 )%   $ 13,488       9267 %   $ 144  
 
Provision for Income Taxes — For the year ended 2008, we recorded a provision for income taxes of $5.2 million yielding an effective tax rate of (12.2)%. The current year tax provision is reflective of the recording of a full valuation allowance against our entire deferred tax asset balance in the period due to losses in fiscal 2008, the variability of operating results, and near term projected losses. Accordingly, the effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate. For the year ended 2007, we recorded a provision for income taxes of $13.5 million yielding an effective tax rate of 10.3%. The 2007 tax provision is primarily reflective of federal and state tax expense as a result of our pre-tax income of $130.5 million mainly due to the litigation conclusions and patent license from Sony Computer Entertainment, see Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements. The effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate primarily due to the significant reduction in our valuation allowance against deferred tax assets as we used the majority of our net operating loss carryforwards against current year taxable income. For the year ended 2006, we recorded a provision for income taxes of $144,000, yielding an effective tax rate of (1.4%). The provision for income tax was based on federal and state alternative minimum income tax payable on taxable income and foreign withholding tax expense. Although we incurred a pre-tax loss of $10.3 million, sums received from Sony Computer Entertainment and interest thereon included in long-term deferred revenue, approximating $11.1 million in 2006, are taxable, thus giving rise to an overall taxable profit. The effective tax rate differs from the statutory rate primarily due to the recording of a full valuation allowance against deferred tax assets.
 
Segment Results for the Years Ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006 are as follows:
 
We have two operating and reportable segments. One segment, Touch, develops and markets touch feedback technologies that enable software and hardware developers to enhance realism and usability in their computing, entertainment, and industrial applications. The second segment, Medical, develops, manufactures, and markets medical training simulators that recreate realistic healthcare environments.
 
                                         
    2008     % Change     2007     % Change     2006  
    ($ in thousands)  
 
Revenues:
                                       
Touch
  $ 21,807       13 %   $ 19,363       40 %   $ 13,810  
Medical
    14,839       (4 )%     15,428       9 %     14,133  
Intersegment eliminations
    (111 )             (89 )             (90 )
                                         
Total
  $ 36,535       5 %   $ 34,702       25 %   $ 27,853  
                                         
Net Income (Loss)*:
                                       
Touch
  $ (41,375 )     (136 )%   $ 116,405       1132 %   $ (11,278 )
Medical
    (6,313 )     (1094 )%     635       (25 )%     845  
Intersegment eliminations
    3               (22 )             9  
                                         
Total
  $ (47,685 )     (141 )%   $ 117,018       1223 %   $ (10,424 )
                                         
 
 
* Segment assets and expenses relating to our corporate operations are not allocated but are included in the Touch segment as that is how they are considered for management evaluation purposes. As a result, the segment information may not be indicative of the financial position or results of operations that would have been achieved had these segments operated as unaffiliated entities.


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Fiscal 2008 Compared to Fiscal 2007
 
Touch segment — Revenues from the Touch segment increased by $2.4 million, or 13% in 2008 compared to 2007. Royalty and license revenues increased by $2.4 million, mainly due to an increase in mobile device license and royalty revenue primarily due to the shipment of additional TouchSense enabled phones, and an increase in gaming royalties mainly due to the recognition of previously deferred revenues from ISLLC and the increase in sales of new steering wheel products from Logitech offset by a decrease in touch interface product royalties mainly due to the recognition of certain automotive royalty payments in the second quarter of 2007 that did not recur. Product sales increased by $255,000 primarily due to increased 3D product sales mainly from increased sales of our CyberGlove, CyberGrasp, CyberTouch, and MicroScribe products and an increase in product sales from touch interface products, mainly due to increased sales of touchscreen and touch panel components and increased sales of commercial gaming products. Development contract revenue decreased by $179,000 primarily due to reduced touch interface product contract revenue partially offset by increased revenue on mobile device development contracts and support. The segment’s results changed by $157.8 million to a loss in 2008 as compared to a profit in 2007. The change was primarily due to increased litigation settlements, conclusions, and patent license income of $134.9 million ($119.9 million from Sony Computer Entertainment and $15.0 million related to the release of the Microsoft long-term customer advance) occurring in 2007 and the Microsoft settlement expense in 2008 of $20.8 million; an increase in general and administrative expenses of $4.3 million; an increase in sales and marketing expenses of $2.9 million; decreased interest and other income of $1.8 million; an increase of research and development expenses of $1.8 million, and increased restructuring charges of $537,000. The change from income in 2007 to a loss in 2008 was partially offset by a decreased provision for income taxes of $8.3 million and a decrease in interest expense of $774,000 primarily due to the conversion and redemption of our 5% Convertible Debentures. Gross margin had minimal effect on segment net income as the gross margin from the increased royalty and license revenue was primarily offset by inventory impairment charges of $2.0 million primarily due to the proposed divesting of the 3D product line.
 
Medical segment — Revenues from Medical decreased by $589,000 or 4%, from 2007 to 2008. The decrease was primarily due to a decrease of $1.3 million in medical development contract revenue due to work completed under medical contracts in 2007, partially offset by an increase in product sales of $746,000 mainly due to increased sales of our endoscopy and Virtual IV simulator platforms. The decrease in medical contracts also represents continued efforts to move away from development work and concentrate on product sales and licensing. The increase in product sales was a result of pursuing a product growth strategy for our medical business, which includes leveraging our industry alliances, resulting in significant increases in the sales of our Virtual IV platform and expanding international sales, resulting in additional increases in revenue from our endoscopy platform. The segment’s results changed by $6.9 million to a loss in 2008 as compared to a profit in 2007. The loss was mainly due to increased sales and marketing expenses of $2.4 million as the segment expands international sales and marketing efforts, increased general and administrative expenses of $2.1 million, mainly litigation and legal costs, a decrease in gross margin of $1.7 million primarily due to decreased sales and product sales mix, and increased research and development expenses of $726,000. With our plan to move the medical operating segment to San Jose, we hope to achieve additional cost reductions in 2009.
 
Fiscal 2007 Compared to Fiscal 2006
 
Touch segment — Revenues from the Touch segment increased by $5.6 million, or 40% in 2007 compared to 2006. Royalty and license revenue increased by $4.7 million, mainly due to increased gaming royalties primarily from Sony Computer Entertainment, increased mobile device license and royalty revenue, and increased royalties and license fees from our touch interface product licensees. Product sales increased by $368,000, mainly due to increased sales of our touch interface products including touchscreen and touch panel components, force feedback electronics for arcade gaming, and rotary modules. Development contract revenue increased by $460,000, primarily due to continued revenue from mobile device development contracts, partially offset by a decrease in touch interface product contract revenue. The segment’s net income for 2007 increased by $127.7 million as compared to 2006. The increase was primarily due to the litigation conclusions and patent license income of $134.9 million ($119.9 million from Sony Computer Entertainment and $15.0 million from Microsoft); increased interest and other income of $5.6 million due to increased cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments; increased gross margin


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of $4.3 million primarily due to increased sales; a decrease in sales and marketing expenses of $796,000; and a decrease in interest expense of $573,000 due to the conversion and redemption of our 5% Convertible Debentures. The increases were partially offset by increased provision for income taxes of $13.3 million; an increase in general and administrative expenses of $3.0 million primarily due to increased legal and professional fees; the reduction of litigation settlements of $1.7 million from PDP in 2006; and an increase of research and development expenses of $471,000.
 
Immersion Medical segment — Revenues from Medical increased by $1.3 million, or 9% from 2006 to 2007. The increase was primarily due to an increase of $1.1 million in product sales and an increase of $370,000 in development contract revenue, partially offset by a decrease of $147,000 in royalty and license revenue. Product sales increased primarily due to increased sales of our endoscopy and our Virtual IV simulator platforms. This increase in product sales was a result of pursuing a product growth strategy for our medical business, which includes leveraging our industry alliances, resulting in significant increases in the sales of our Virtual IV platform; and expanding international sales, resulting in additional increases in the sales of our endoscopy platform. Increased contract revenue recognized from our contracts with Medtronic contributed to the increase in development contract revenue. Segment net income for 2007 was $635,000, a decrease of $210,000 from the net income of $845,000 for 2006. The reduction in net income was mainly due to increased operating expenses of $1.2 million offset by increased gross margin of $986,000. The increased operating expenses included increased research and development expenses of $2.0 million primarily due to increased headcount, offset in part by decreased general and administrative expenses of $463,000 and reduced sales and marketing expenses of $320,000. The increased gross margin was primarily due to increased product sales and increased development contracts primarily from Medtronic.
 
Liquidity and Capital Resources
 
Our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments consist primarily of money market funds and highly liquid commercial paper and government agency securities. All of our short-term investments are classified as available-for-sale under the provisions of SFAS No. 115, “Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities.” The securities are stated at market value, with unrealized gains and losses reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income, within stockholders’ equity.
 
On December 31, 2008, our cash, cash equivalents, and short-term investments totaled $85.7 million, a decrease of $52.4 million from $138.1 million on December 31, 2007.
 
In March 2007, we concluded our patent infringement litigation against Sony Computer Entertainment and we received $97.3 million. Furthermore, we entered into a new business agreement under which, we are to receive twelve quarterly installments of $1.875 million for a total of $22.5 million beginning on March 31, 2007 and ending on December 31, 2009. As of December 31, 2008, we had received eight of these installments.
 
On June 18, 2007, Microsoft filed a complaint against us in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging one claim for breach of a contract. After conducting discovery and filing various motions, on August 25, 2008 the parties agreed to settle all claims. Under the terms of the settlement, we paid Microsoft $20.8 million in October 2008.
 
Net cash used in operating activities during 2008 was $30.4 million, a change of $114.9 million from the $84.5 million provided by operating activities during 2007. Cash used in operations during 2008 was primarily the result of a net loss of $47.7 million, a decrease of $1.7 million due to a change in accounts receivables, a decrease of $1.5 million due to a change in other long-term liabilities, a decrease of $415,000 due to a change in income taxes payable, and a decrease of $191,000 due to a change in prepaid expenses and other current assets. These decreases were offset by an increase of $7.4 million due to a change in deferred income taxes, a $3.3 million increase due to a change in deferred revenue and customer advances and long-term customer advance from Microsoft, an increase of $2.5 million due to a change in accrued compensation and other current liabilities, an increase of $1.5 million due to a change in accounts payable, and an increase of $360,000 due to a change in inventories. Cash provided by operations during 2008 was also impacted by noncash charges and credits of $6.2 million, including $4.1 million of noncash stock-based compensation, $1.2 million in depreciation and amortization, $779,000 in amortization of intangibles, an increase to allowance for doubtful accounts of $351,000, partially offset by a credit of $200,000 from


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excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation. Net cash provided by operating activities during 2007 was $84.5 million, a change of $79.2 million from the $5.3 million provided by operating activities during 2006. Cash provided by operations during 2007 was primarily the result of our net income of $117.0 million, an increase of $15.2 million due to a change in income taxes payable, an increase of $960,000 due to a change in other long-term liabilities, and an increase of 620,000 due to a change in accrued compensation and other current liabilities. These increases were offset by a $29.8 million decrease due to a change in deferred revenue and customer advances mainly related to the conclusion of our patent litigation with Sony Computer Entertainment and the extinguishment of the customer advance from Microsoft, a decrease of $7.4 million due to a change in deferred income taxes, a decrease of $1.8 million due to a change in prepaid expenses and other current assets, a decrease of $965,000 due to a change in inventories, a decrease of $618,000 due to a change in accounts payable due to the timing of payments to vendors, and a decrease of $263,000 due to a change in accounts receivable. Cash provided by operations during 2007 was also impacted by noncash charges and credits resulting in a net credit of $8.4 million including a credit of $13.5 million from excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation, partially offset by $2.7 million of noncash stock-based compensation, $1.0 million in amortization of intangibles, $911,000 in depreciation and amortization, and $535,000 in accretion expenses on our 5% Convertible Debentures.
 
Net cash provided by investing activities during 2008 was $25.3 million, compared to the $55.2 million used in investing activities during 2007, an increase of $80.5 million. Net cash provided by investing activities during the period consisted of an increase in maturities or sales of short-term investments of $90.0 million, partially offset by purchases of short-term investments of $59.2 million; $3.1 million used to purchase property and equipment, and a $2.4 million increase in intangibles and other assets, primarily due to capitalization of external patent filing and application costs. Net cash used in investing activities during 2007 was $55.2 million, compared to the $2.7 million used in investing activities during 2006, an increase of $52.5 million. Net cash used in investing activities during 2007 consisted of an increase in purchases of short-term investments of $96.7 million, a $2.1 million increase in intangibles and other assets, primarily due to capitalization of external patent filing and application costs, and $1.4 million used to purchase property and equipment, offset in part by $45.1 million of maturities or sales of short-term investments.
 
Net cash used in financing activities during 2008 was $16.6 million compared to $25.2 million provided during 2007, or a $41.8 million increase from the prior year. Net cash used in financing activities for the period consisted primarily of purchases of treasury stock of $18.4 million, partially offset by issuances of common stock and exercises of stock options and warrants in the amount of $1.6 million, and an increase of $200,000 from excess tax benefits from tax deductible stock-based compensation. Net cash provided by financing activities during 2007 was $25.2 million compared to $1.3 million provided during 2006, or a $23.9 million increase from the prior year. Net cash provided by financing activities during 2007 consisted primarily of an increase of $13.5 million from excess tax benefits from tax deductible stock-based compensation, and issuances of common stock and exercises of stock options and warrants in the amount of $13.1 million, offset in part by the partial redemption of our 5% Convertible Debentures of $1.4 million with the remainder converted to common stock.
 
We believe that our cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our working capital needs for at least the next twelve months. We will continue to protect and defend our extensive intellectual property portfolio across all business segments. We anticipate that capital expenditures for the year ended December 31, 2009 will total approximately $3 million in connection with anticipated maintenance and upgrades to operations and infrastructure. Additionally, if we acquire one or more businesses, patents, or products, our cash or capital requirements could increase substantially. In the event of such an acquisition, or should any unanticipated circumstances arise that significantly increase our capital requirements, we may elect to raise additional capital through debt or equity financing. Any of these events could result in substantial dilution to our stockholders. Although we expect to be able to raise additional capital if necessary, there is no assurance that such additional capital will be available on terms acceptable to us, if at all.


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Summary Disclosures about Contractual Obligations and Commercial Commitments
 
The following table reflects a summary of our contractual cash obligations and other commercial commitments as of December 31, 2008:
 
                                         
                2010 and
    2012 and
       
Contractual Obligations
  Total     2009     2011     2013     2014  
 
Operating Leases
  $ 3,555     $ 928     $ 1,250     $ 1,094     $ 283  
                                         
 
As discussed in Note 13 to the consolidated financial statements, effective January 1, 2007, we adopted the provisions of FASB Interpretation No. 48, “Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes — an interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109,” (“FIN 48”). At December 31, 2008, we had a liability for unrecognized tax benefits totaling $642,000 including interest of $15,000, of which approximately $212,000 could be payable in cash. Due to the uncertainties related to these tax matters, we are unable to make a reasonably reliable estimate when cash settlement with a taxing authority will occur. Settlement of such amounts could require the utilization of working capital.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
See Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements for information regarding the effect of new accounting pronouncements on our financial statements.
 
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk
 
We are exposed to financial market risks, including changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. Changes in these factors may cause fluctuations in our earnings and cash flows. We evaluate and manage the exposure to these market risks as follows:
 
Cash Equivalents and Short-term Investments — We have cash equivalents and short-term investments of $83.4 million as of December 31, 2008. These securities are subject to interest rate fluctuations. An increase in interest rates could adversely affect the market value of our fixed income securities. A hypothetical 100 basis point increase in interest rates would result in an approximate $110,000 decrease in the fair value of our cash equivalents and short-term investments as of December 31, 2008.
 
We limit our exposure to interest rate and credit risk by establishing and monitoring clear policies and guidelines for our cash equivalents and short-term investment portfolios. The primary objective of our policies is to preserve principal while at the same time maximizing yields, without significantly increasing risk. Our investment policy limits the maximum weighted average duration of all invested funds to 12 months. Our policy’s guidelines also limit exposure to loss by limiting the sums we can invest in any individual security and restricting investment to securities that meet certain defined credit ratings. We do not use derivative financial instruments in our investment portfolio to manage interest rate risk.
 
Foreign Currency Exchange Rates — A substantial majority of our revenue, expense, and capital purchasing activities are transacted in U.S. dollars. However, we do incur certain operating costs for our foreign operations in other currencies but these operations are limited in scope and thus we are not materially exposed to foreign currency fluctuations. Additionally we have some reliance on international and export sales that are subject to the risks of fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Because a substantial majority of our international and export revenues, as well as expenses, are typically denominated in U.S. dollars, a strengthening of the U.S. dollar could cause our products to become relatively more expensive to customers in a particular country, leading to a reduction in sales or profitability in that country. We have no foreign exchange contracts, option contracts, or other foreign currency hedging arrangements.


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Item 8.   Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
         
    Page
 
    52  
    53  
    54  
    55  
    56  
    82  


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands, except share and per share amounts)  
 
ASSETS
Current assets:
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 64,769     $ 86,493  
Short-term investments
    20,974       51,619  
Accounts receivable (net of allowances for doubtful accounts of:
               
2008 — $436; 2007 — $85)
    6,829       5,494  
Inventories, net
    3,396       3,674  
Deferred income taxes
    226       3,351  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    3,225       3,036  
                 
Total current assets
    99,419       153,667  
Property and equipment, net
    3,827       2,112  
Deferred income tax assets, net
          4,031  
Intangibles and other assets, net
    9,945       8,558  
                 
Total assets
  $ 113,191     $ 168,368  
                 
 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
Current liabilities:
               
Accounts payable
  $ 2,842     $ 1,657  
Accrued compensation
    3,010       1,828  
Other current liabilities
    3,466       2,629  
Deferred revenue and customer advances (Note 6)
    5,125       4,478  
                 
Total current liabilities
    14,443       10,592  
Long-term deferred revenue, less current portion
    16,887       14,269  
Deferred income tax liabilities
    226        
Other long-term liabilities
    212       1,720  
                 
Total liabilities
    31,768       26,581  
                 
Commitments and contingencies (Notes 9 and 16)
               
Stockholders’ equity:
               
Common stock and additional paid-in capital — $0.001 par value; 100,000,000 shares authorized; shares issued: December 31, 2008 — 30,674,045 and December 31, 2007 - 30,389,850; shares outstanding: December 31, 2008 — 27,887,482 and December 31, 2007 — 30,389,850
    165,885       160,147  
Warrants
    1,731       1,731  
Accumulated other comprehensive income
    109       137  
Accumulated deficit
    (67,913 )     (20,228 )
Treasury stock at cost: December 31, 2008 — 2,786,563 shares and December 31, 2007 — 0 shares
    (18,389 )      
                 
Total stockholders’ equity
    81,423       141,787  
                 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
  $ 113,191     $ 168,368  
                 
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands, except per share amounts)  
 
Revenues:
                       
Royalty and license
  $ 14,254     $ 11,881     $ 7,304  
Product sales
    19,504       18,541       17,083  
Development contracts and other
    2,777       4,280       3,466  
                         
Total revenues
    36,535       34,702       27,853  
Costs and expenses:
                       
Cost of product sales (exclusive of amortization of intangibles shown separately below)
    12,441       8,808       7,193  
Sales and marketing
    16,851       11,493       12,609  
Research and development
    12,555       10,056       7,609  
General and administrative
    18,929       12,567       10,076  
Amortization of intangibles
    779       1,002       969  
Litigation settlements, conclusions, and patent license
    20,750       (134,900 )     (1,650 )
Restructuring costs
    537              
                         
Total costs and expenses
    82,842       (90,974 )     36,806  
                         
Operating income (loss)
    (46,307 )     125,676       (8,953 )
Interest and other income
    4,046       5,854       275  
Interest and other expense
    (250 )     (1,024 )     (1,602 )
                         
Income (loss) before provision for income taxes
    (42,511 )     130,506       (10,280 )
Provision for income taxes
    (5,174 )     (13,488 )     (144 )
                         
Net income (loss)
  $ (47,685 )   $ 117,018     $ (10,424 )
                         
Basic net income (loss) per share
  $ (1.61 )   $ 4.23     $ (0.42 )
                         
Shares used in calculating basic net income (loss) per share
    29,575       27,662       24,556  
                         
Diluted net income (loss) per share
  $ (1.61 )   $ 3.71     $ (0.42 )
                         
Shares used in calculating diluted net income (loss) per share
    29,575       31,667       24,556  
                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
 
                                                                         
                      Accumulated
                      Total
       
    Common Stock and
          Other
                      Stockholders’
    Total
 
    Additional Paid-In Capital           Comprehensive
    Accumulated
    Treasury Stock     Equity
    Comprehensive
 
    Shares     Amount     Warrants     Income     Deficit     Shares     Amount     (Deficit)     Income (Loss)  
    (In thousands, except share amounts)  
 
Balances at January 1, 2006
    24,360,427     $ 106,277     $ 3,686     $ 64     $ (126,822 )                   $ (16,795 )        
Net loss
                                    (10,424 )                     (10,424 )   $ (10,424 )
Foreign currency translation adjustment
                            3                               3       3  
                                                                         
Comprehensive loss
                                                                  $ (10,421 )
                                                                         
Issuance of stock for ESPP purchase
    47,335       242                                               242          
Exercise of stock options
    389,810       1,009                                               1,009          
Stock based compensation
            2,937                                               2,937          
Tax benefits from stock-based compensation
            36                                               36          
                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2006
    24,797,572     $ 110,501     $ 3,686     $ 67     $ (137,246 )         $     $ (22,992 )        
Net income
                                    117,018                       117,018     $ 117,018  
Foreign currency translation adjustment
                            88                               88       88  
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities, net of taxes
                            (18 )                             (18 )     (18 )
                                                                         
Comprehensive income
                                                                  $ 117,088  
                                                                         
Conversion of long-term debt to common stock
    2,656,677       17,257                                               17,257          
Issuance of stock for ESPP purchase
    56,516       317                                               317          
Exercise of stock options
    2,609,573       12,707                                               12,707          
Exercise of warrants
    269,512       832       (801 )                                     31          
Expiration of warrants
            1,154       (1,154 )                                              
Stock based compensation
            2,729                                               2,729          
Tax benefits from stock-based compensation
            14,650                                               14,650          
                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2007
    30,389,850     $ 160,147     $ 1,731     $ 137     $ (20,228 )         $     $ 141,787          
Net loss
                                    (47,685 )                     (47,685 )   $ (47,685 )
Foreign currency translation adjustment
                            (39 )                             (39 )     (39 )
Unrealized gain (loss) on available-for-sale securities, net of taxes
                            11                               11       11  
                                                                         
Comprehensive income
                                                                  $ (47,713 )
                                                                         
Issuance of stock for ESPP purchase
    47,158       330                                               330          
Exercise of stock options
    237,037       1,253                                               1,253          
Stock based compensation
            4,058                                               4,058          
Tax benefits from stock-based compensation
            97                                               97          
Treasury stock purchases
                                            2,786,563       (18,389 )     (18,389 )        
                                                                         
Balances at December 31, 2008
    30,674,045     $ 165,885     $ 1,731     $ 109     $ (67,913 )     2,786,563     $ (18,389 )   $ 81,423          
                                                                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands)  
 
Cash flows from operating activities:
                       
Net income (loss)
  $ (47,685 )   $ 117,018     $ (10,424 )
Adjustments to reconcile net income (loss) to net cash provided by (used in) operating activities:
                       
Depreciation and amortization
    1,210       911       772  
Amortization of intangibles
    779       1,002       969  
Stock-based compensation
    4,058       2,729       2,937  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    (200 )     (13,505 )     (36 )
Realized gain on short-term investments
    (81 )            
Allowance (recovery) for doubtful accounts
    351       (54 )     (244 )
Interest expense — accretion on 5% Convertible Debenture
          535       632  
Fair value adjustment of Put Option and Registration Rights
          (15 )     (34 )
Loss on disposal of equipment
    93       15       15  
Write off of intangibles
                69  
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
                       
Accounts receivable
    (1,726 )     (263 )     (259 )
Inventories
    360       (965 )     79  
Deferred income taxes
    7,382       (7,382 )      
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    (191 )     (1,842 )     (71 )
Other assets
    12       (62 )      
Accounts payable
    1,473       (618 )     191  
Accrued compensation and other current liabilities
    2,474       620       516  
Income taxes payable
    (415 )     15,184        
Deferred revenue and customer advances and long-term customer advance from Microsoft. 
    3,265       (29,753 )     9,465  
Other long-term liabilities
    (1,508 )     960       760  
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities
    (30,349 )     84,515       5,337  
                         
Cash flows provided by (used in) investing activities:
                       
Purchases of short-term investments
    (59,242 )     (96,719 )      
Maturities or sales of short-term investments
    89,978       45,110        
Intangibles and other assets
    (2,389 )     (2,113 )     (1,614 )
Purchases of property and equipment
    (3,090 )     (1,438 )     (1,130 )
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities
    25,257       (55,160 )     (2,744 )
                         
Cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities:
                       
Issuance of common stock under employee stock purchase plan
    330       317       242  
Exercise of stock options and warrants
    1,253       12,738       1,009  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    200       13,505       36  
Payment on long-term debt
          (1,400 )     (5 )
Purchases of treasury stock
    (18,389 )            
                         
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
    (16,606 )     25,160       1,282  
                         
Effect of exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents
    (26 )     (34 )     (34 )
                         
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents
    (21,724 )     54,481       3,841  
Cash and cash equivalents:
                       
Beginning of year
    86,493       32,012       28,171  
                         
End of year
  $ 64,769     $ 86,493     $ 32,012  
                         
Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information:
                       
Cash paid (received) for taxes
  $ (1,586 )   $ 6,882     $ 28  
                         
Cash paid for interest
  $     $ 572     $ 1,004  
                         
Supplemental disclosure of noncash investing and financing activities:
                       
Issuance of common stock in connection with the conversion of the 5% Convertible Debentures
  $     $ 17,257     $  
                         
Amounts accrued for property and equipment, and intangibles
  $ 605     $     $  
                         
 
See notes to consolidated financial statements.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
Years Ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006
 
1.   Significant Accounting Policies
 
Description of Business
 
Immersion Corporation (the “Company”) was incorporated in 1993 in California and reincorporated in Delaware in 1999 and develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of hardware and software technologies and products that enhance digital devices with touch interaction.
 
Principles of Consolidation and Basis of Presentation
 
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Immersion Corporation and its majority-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts, transactions, and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. The Company has prepared the accompanying consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”).
 
Reclassifications
 
Certain reclassifications have been made to the 2006 and 2007 presentation to conform to the 2008 presentation.
 
Cash Equivalents
 
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with an original or remaining maturity of less than three months at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents.
 
Short-term Investments
 
The Company’s short-term investments consist primarily of highly liquid commercial paper and government agency securities purchased with an original or remaining maturity of greater than 90 days on the date of purchase. The Company classifies all debt securities with readily determinable market values as “available-for-sale” in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (“SFAS”) No. 115, “Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities” (“SFAS” No. 115”). Even though the stated maturity dates of these debt securities may be one year or more beyond the balance sheet date, the Company has classified all debt securities as short-term investments in accordance with Accounting Research Bulletin No. 43, Chapter 3A, “Working Capital — Current Assets and Current Liabilities,” as they are reasonably expected to be realized in cash or sold during the normal operating cycle of the Company. These investments are carried at fair market value with unrealized gains and losses considered to be temporary in nature reported as a separate component of other comprehensive income (loss) within stockholders’ equity (deficit). The Company reviews all investments for reductions in fair value that are other-than-temporary. When such reductions occur, the cost of the investment is adjusted to fair value through loss on investments on the consolidated statement of operations. Gains and losses on investments are calculated on the basis of specific identification.
 
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
 
The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from its review and assessment of its customers’ ability to make required payments. The Company reviews its trade receivables by aging categories to identify significant customers with known disputes or collection issues. For accounts not specifically identified, the Company provides reserves based on historical levels of credit losses and reserves.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Inventories
 
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost (principally on a standard cost basis which approximates FIFO) or market. The Company reduces its inventory value for estimated obsolete and slow moving inventory in an amount equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the net realizable value based upon assumptions about future demand and market conditions.
 
Property and Equipment
 
Property is stated at cost and is generally depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the related asset. The estimated useful lives are as follows:
 
         
Computer equipment and purchased software
    3 years  
Machinery and equipment
    3-5 years  
Furniture and fixtures
    5-7 years  
 
Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the lease term or their useful life.
 
Intangible Assets
 
The Company accounts for its intangible assets in accordance with SFAS No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets” (“SFAS No. 142”). SFAS No. 142 addresses the initial recognition and measurement of intangible assets acquired outside of a business combination and the accounting for goodwill and other intangible assets subsequent to their acquisition. SFAS No. 142 provides that intangible assets with finite useful lives will be amortized and that goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives will not be amortized but rather will be tested at least annually for impairment.
 
In addition to purchased intangible assets the Company capitalizes the external legal and filing fees associated with its patents and trademarks. These costs are amortized utilizing the straight-line method, which approximates the pattern of consumption over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, generally ten years.
 
Long-lived Assets
 
The Company evaluates its long-lived assets for impairment in accordance with SFAS No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets,” whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of that asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the undiscounted future net cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition is less than its carrying amount. Measurement of an impairment loss for long-lived assets and certain identifiable intangible assets that management expects to hold and use is based on the fair value of the asset.
 
Product Warranty
 
The Company sells its products with warranties ranging from three to sixty months. The Company records the estimated warranty costs during the quarter the revenue is recognized. Historically, warranty-related costs have not been significant.
 
Revenue Recognition
 
The Company recognizes revenues in accordance with applicable accounting standards, including Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 104, “Revenue Recognition” (“SAB No. 104”), EITF No. 00-21, “Accounting for Revenue Arrangements with Multiple Deliverables” (“EITF No. 00-21”), Statement of Position (“SOP”) 81-1 “Accounting for Performance for Construction-Type and Certain Production-Type contracts” (“SOP 81-1”), and SOP 97-2, “Software Revenue Recognition” (“SOP 97-2”), as amended. Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
service has been rendered, the fee is fixed and determinable, and collectability is probable. The Company derives its revenues from three principal sources: royalty and license fees, product sales, and development contracts.
 
Royalty and license revenue — The Company recognizes royalty and license revenue based on royalty reports or related information received from the licensee as well as time-based licenses of its intellectual property portfolio. Up-front payments under license agreements are deferred and recognized as revenue either based on the royalty reports received or amortized over the license period depending on the nature of the agreement. Advance payments under license agreements that also require the Company to provide future services to the licensee are deferred and recognized over the service period when vendor-specific objective evidence (“VSOE”) related to the value of the services does not exist.
 
The Company generally recognizes revenue from its licensees under one or a combination of the following models:
 
     
License Revenue Model
 
Revenue Recognition
 
Perpetual license of intellectual property portfolio based on per unit royalties, no services contracted.   Based on royalty reports received from licensees. No further obligations to licensee exist.
Time-based license of intellectual property portfolio with up-front payments and/or annual minimum royalty requirements, no services contracted. Licensees have certain rights to updates to the intellectual property portfolio during the contract period.   Based on straight-line amortization of annual minimum/up-front payment recognized over contract period or annual minimum period.
Perpetual license of intellectual property portfolio or technology license along with contract for development work.   Based on cost-to-cost percentage-of-completion accounting method over the service period or completed contract method. Obligation to licensee exists until development work is complete.
License of software or technology, no modification necessary, no services contracted.   Up-front revenue recognition based on SOP 97-2 criteria or EITF No. 00-21, as applicable.
 
Individual contracts may have characteristics that do not fall within a specific license model or may have characteristics of a combination of license models. Under those circumstances, the Company recognizes revenue in accordance with SAB No. 104, EITF No. 00-21, SOP 81-1, and SOP 97-2, as amended, to guide the accounting treatment for each individual contract. See also the discussion regarding “Multiple element arrangements” below.
 
Product sales — The Company recognizes revenues from product sales when the product is shipped, provided the other revenue recognition criteria are met, including that collection is determined to be probable and no significant obligation remains. The Company sells the majority of its products with warranties ranging from three to sixty months. The Company records the estimated warranty costs during the quarter the revenue is recognized. Historically, warranty-related costs and related accruals have not been significant. The Company offers a general right of return on the MicroScribe® product line for 14 days after purchase. The Company recognizes revenue at the time of shipment of a MicroScribe digitizer and provides an accrual for potential returns based on historical experience. The Company offers no other general right of return on its products.
 
Development contracts and other revenue — Development contracts and other revenue is comprised of professional services (consulting services and/or development contracts), customer support, and extended warranty contracts. Development contract revenues are recognized under the cost-to-cost percentage-of-completion accounting method based on physical completion of the work to be performed or completed contract method. Losses on contracts are recognized when determined. Revisions in estimates are reflected in the period in which the conditions


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
become known. Customer support and extended warranty contract revenue is recognized ratably over the contractual period.
 
Multiple element arrangements — The Company enters into revenue arrangements in which the customer purchases a combination of patent, technology, and/or software licenses, products, professional services, support, and extended warranties (multiple element arrangements). When VSOE of fair value exists for all elements, the Company allocates revenue to each element based on the relative fair value of each of the elements. The price charged when the element is sold separately generally determines the fair value or VSOE.
 
Advertising
 
Advertising costs (including obligations under cooperative marketing programs) are expensed as incurred and included in sales and marketing expense. Advertising expense was $229,000, $102,000, and $279,000 in 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively.
 
Research and Development
 
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. The Company has generated revenues from development contracts with the United States government and other commercial customers that have enabled it to accelerate its own product development efforts. Such development revenues have only partially funded the Company’s product development activities, and the Company generally retains ownership of the products developed under these arrangements. As a result, the Company classifies all development costs related to these contracts as research and development expenses.
 
Income Taxes
 
The Company provides for income taxes using the asset and liability approach defined by SFAS No. 109 “Accounting for Income Taxes” (“SFAS No. 109”). Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected tax consequences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized and are reversed at such time that realization is believed to be more likely than not.
 
Software Development Costs
 
Certain of the Company’s products include software. Costs for the development of new software products and substantial enhancements to existing software products are expensed as incurred until technological feasibility has been established, at which time any additional costs would be capitalized in accordance with SFAS No. 86, “Computer Software to be Sold, Leased or Otherwise Marketed.” The Company considers technological feasibility to be established upon completion of a working model of the software and the related hardware. Because the Company believes its current process for developing software is essentially completed concurrently with the establishment of technological feasibility, no costs have been capitalized to date.
 
Stock-based Compensation
 
On January 1, 2006, the Company adopted the provisions of, and accounted for stock-based compensation in accordance with, SFAS No. 123R, “Share-Based Payment” (“SFAS No. 123R”) which replaced SFAS No. 123 “Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation,” (“SFAS No. 123”), and supersedes APB No. 25. Under the fair value recognition provisions of SFAS No. 123R, stock-based compensation cost is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period. The valuation provisions of SFAS No. 123R apply to new grants and to grants that were outstanding as of the effective date and are subsequently modified. Estimated compensation for grants that were


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
outstanding as of the effective date will be recognized over the remaining service period using the compensation cost estimated for the SFAS No. 123 pro forma disclosures.
 
With respect to its adoption of SFAS No. 123R, the Company elected the modified-prospective method, under which prior periods are not revised for comparative purposes. The adoption of SFAS No. 123R had a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial position, results of operations, and cash flows for the year ended December 31, 2006, 2007, and 2008. See Note 10 for further information regarding the Company’s stock-based compensation assumptions and expenses, including pro forma disclosures as if the Company had recorded stock-based compensation expense for prior periods.
 
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
 
Comprehensive income (loss) includes net income (loss) as well as other items of comprehensive income. The Company’s other comprehensive income consists of foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains and losses on available-for-sale securities. Total comprehensive income (loss) and the components of accumulated other comprehensive income are presented in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit).
 
Use of Estimates
 
The preparation of consolidated financial statements and related disclosures in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Significant estimates include valuation of short-term investments, income taxes including uncertain tax provisions, revenue recognition, stock-based compensation, contingent liabilities from litigation, and accruals for other liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
 
Concentration of Credit Risks
 
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to a concentration of credit risk principally consist of cash, cash equivalents, short term investments, and accounts receivable. The Company invests primarily in money market accounts and highly liquid instruments purchased with an original or remaining maturity of greater than 90 days on the date of purchase. Deposits held with banks may exceed the amount of insurance provided on such deposits. Generally, these deposits may be redeemed upon demand. The Company sells products primarily to companies in North America, Europe, and the Far East. To reduce credit risk, management performs periodic credit evaluations of its customers’ financial condition. The Company maintains reserves for estimated potential credit losses, but historically has not experienced any significant losses related to individual customers or groups of customers in any particular industry or geographic area.
 
Certain Significant Risks and Uncertainties
 
The Company operates in a dynamic industry and, accordingly, can be affected by a variety of factors. For example, management of the Company believes that changes in any of the following areas could have a negative effect on the Company in terms of its future financial position and results of operations: the mix of revenues; the loss of significant customers; fundamental changes in the technology underlying the Company’s products; market acceptance of the Company’s and its licensees’ products under development; the availability of contract manufacturing capacity; development of sales channels; litigation or other claims in which the Company is involved; the ability to successfully assert its patent rights against others; the impact of the global economic downturn; the hiring, training, and retention of key employees; successful and timely completion of product and technology development efforts; and new product or technology introductions by competitors.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
 
Financial instruments consist primarily of cash equivalents, short-term investments, accounts receivable, accounts payable, and long-term debt. Cash equivalents and short term investments are stated at fair value based on quoted market prices. The recorded cost of accounts receivable, accounts payable, and long-term debt approximate the fair value of the respective assets and liabilities.
 
Foreign Currency Translation
 
The functional currency of the Company’s foreign subsidiary is its local currency. Accordingly, gains and losses from the translation of the financial statements of the foreign subsidiary are reported as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are included in earnings.
 
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
 
In February 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 159, “The Fair Value Option for Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” (“SFAS No. 159”). The new Statement allows entities to choose, at specified election dates, to measure eligible financial assets and liabilities at fair value in situations in which they are not otherwise required to be measured at fair value. If a company elects the fair value option for an eligible item, changes in that item’s fair value in subsequent reporting periods must be recognized in current earnings. SFAS No. 159 also establishes presentation and disclosure requirements designed to draw comparison between entities that elect different measurement attributes for similar assets and liabilities. SFAS No. 159 was effective on January 1, 2008. The Company did not elect the fair value option for any of its financial instruments, therefore the adoption of SFAS No. 159 did not impact the consolidated financial statements.
 
In April 2008, the FASB issued FSP No. FAS 142-3, “Determination of the Useful Life of Intangible Assets” (“FSP No. FAS 142-3”). FSP No. FAS 142-3 amends the factors that should be considered in developing renewal or extension assumptions used to determine the useful life of a recognized intangible asset under Statement of SFAS No. 142, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets.” FSP No. FAS 142-3 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2008. The Company is currently assessing the impact that FSP No. FAS 142-3 will have on its results of operations, financial position, or cash flows.
 
In December 2007, the FASB issued SFAS No. 141 (revised 2007) (“SFAS No. 141(R)”), “Business Combinations”, which replaces SFAS No 141. The statement retains the purchase method of accounting for acquisitions, but requires a number of changes, including changes in the way assets and liabilities are recognized in purchase accounting. It also changes the recognition of assets acquired and liabilities assumed arising from contingencies, requires the capitalization of in-process research and development at fair value, and requires the expensing of acquisition-related costs as incurred. SFAS No. 141(R) is effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2009 and will be applied prospectively to business combinations completed on or after that date. The impact of the adoption of SFAS No. 141(R) will depend on the nature and extent of any business combinations occurring on or after January 1, 2009.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
2.   Fair Value Disclosures
 
Short-term Investments
 
                                 
    December 31, 2008  
          Gross
    Gross
       
    Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
       
    Cost     Holding Gains     Holding Losses     Fair Value  
    (In thousands)  
 
Commercial paper
  $ 9,980     $ 1     $     $ 9,980  
Government agency securities
    10,975       18             10,993  
                                 
Total
  $   20,955     $   19     $   —     $   20,974  
                                 
 
                                 
    December 31, 2007  
          Gross
    Gross
       
    Amortized
    Unrealized
    Unrealized
       
    Cost     Holding Gains     Holding Losses     Fair Value  
    (In thousands)  
 
Commercial paper
  $ 41,740     $     $ (34 )   $ 41,706  
Government agency securities
    9,871       42             9,913  
                                 
Total
  $   51,611     $   42     $   (34 )   $   51,619  
                                 
 
The contractual maturities of the Company’s available-for-sale securities on December 31, 2008 and December 31, 2007 were all due in one year or less.
 
Cash Equivalents and Short-term Investments
 
The financial assets of the Company measured at fair value on a recurring basis are cash equivalents and short-term investments. The Company’s cash equivalents and short-term investments are generally classified within Level 1 or Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued using quoted market prices, broker or dealer quotations, or alternative pricing sources with reasonable levels of price transparency.
 
The types of instruments valued based on quoted market prices in active markets, include most U.S. government agency securities and most money market securities. Such instruments are generally classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
The types of instruments valued based on quoted prices in markets that are less active, broker or dealer quotations, or alternative pricing sources with reasonable levels of price transparency, include most investment-grade corporate commercial paper. Such instruments are generally classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
 
The following table sets forth the Company’s cash equivalents and short-term investments that are measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy as of December 31, 2008. As required by SFAS No. 157, these are classified based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement.
 
                                 
    Fair value measurement using     Assets at
 
    Level 1     Level 2     Level 3     fair value  
    (In thousands)  
 
Corporate commercial paper
  $     $ 24,971     $     $ 24,971  
U.S. Government agency securities
    23,978                   23,978  
Money market accounts
    34,429                   34,429  
                                 
Total
  $   58,407     $   24,971     $   —     $   83,378  
                                 


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The above table excludes $2.4 million of cash held in banks.
 
3.   Inventories
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands)  
 
Raw materials and subassemblies
  $ 3,119     $ 2,843  
Work in process
    209       179  
Finished goods
    68       652  
                 
Inventories, net
  $   3,396     $   3,674  
                 
 
4.   Property and Equipment
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands)  
 
Computer equipment and purchased software
  $ 4,735     $ 3,195  
Machinery and equipment
    3,269       2,532  
Furniture and fixtures
    1,336       1,212  
Leasehold improvements
    1,261       1,267  
                 
Total
    10,601       8,206  
Less accumulated depreciation
    (6,774 )     (6,094 )
                 
Property and equipment, net
  $   3,827     $   2,112  
                 
 
5.   Intangibles and Other Assets
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands)  
 
Patents and technology
  $ 17,283     $ 15,105  
Other assets
    156       167  
                 
Gross intangibles and other assets
    17,439       15,272  
Accumulated amortization of patents and technology
    (7,494 )     (6,714 )
                 
Intangibles and other assets, net
  $   9,945     $   8,558  
                 
 
Amortization of intangibles during the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006 was $779,000, $1.0 million and $969,000, respectively. The estimated annual amortization expense for intangible assets as of December 31, 2008 is $1.3 million in 2009, $1.2 million in 2010, $1.1 million in 2011, $1.1 million in 2012, $1.0 million in 2013, and $4.2 million in total for all years thereafter, assuming no future acquisitions, write-offs, or impairment charges.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
6.   Components of Other Current Liabilities and Deferred Revenue and Customer Advances
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands)  
 
Accrued legal
  $ 491     $ 417  
Income taxes payable
    9       534  
Other current liabilities
    2,966       1,678  
                 
Total other current liabilities
  $ 3,466     $ 2,629  
                 
Deferred revenue, current
  $ 5,037     $ 4,352  
Customer advances
    88       126  
                 
Total deferred revenue, current and customer advances
  $   5,125     $   4,478  
                 
 
7.   Long-term Debt
 
5% Senior Subordinated Convertible Debentures (“5% Convertible Debentures”)
 
On December 23, 2004, the Company issued an aggregate principal amount of $20.0 million of 5% Convertible Debentures. The 5% Convertible Debentures original maturity date was December 22, 2009. On July 27, 2007, the Company announced that it had notified the holders of its 5% Convertible Debentures of its intent to redeem all of the 5% Convertible Debentures in full, pursuant to the mandatory redemption provision. Approximately $20.1 million of principal and accrued interest was then outstanding under the 5% Convertible Debentures. Under the terms of the 5% Convertible Debentures, once the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock exceeded $14.053 per share for 20 consecutive trading days, the Company could redeem the 5% Convertible Debentures at the end of a 30-day notice period. Prior to the end of the 30-day period, the holders of the 5% Convertible Debenture could have elected to convert the principal and accrued interest outstanding into shares of the Company’s common stock at a conversion price of $7.0265 per share. The 5% Convertible Debentures ceased to accrue further interest upon the Company’s election to affect the mandatory redemption. During the notice period, $17.2 million of 5% Convertible Debentures and approximately $67,000 of accrued interest were converted into 2,656,677 shares of common stock. At the end of the notice period, $1.4 million of 5% Convertible Debentures were redeemed for cash. Interest expense of approximately $106,000 was incurred from unaccreted interest recognized upon the redemption of $1.4 million of 5% Convertible Debentures. Amounts outstanding at both December 31, 2008 and 2007 were $0.
 
8.   Long-term Deferred Revenue
 
On December 31, 2008, long-term deferred revenue was $16.9 million and included approximately $15.4 million of deferred revenue from Sony Computer Entertainment. See Note 11 for further discussion. On December 31, 2007, long-term deferred revenue was $14.3 million and included approximately $11.7 million of deferred revenue from Sony Computer Entertainment.
 
9.   Commitments
 
The Company leases several of its facilities, vehicles, and some office equipment under noncancelable operating lease arrangements that expire at various dates through 2014.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Minimum future lease payments are as follows:
 
         
    Operating Leases  
    (In thousands)  
 
2009
  $ 928  
2010
    695  
2011
    555  
2012
    539  
2013
    555  
Thereafter
    283  
         
Total future minimum lease payments
  $      3,555  
         
 
Rent expense was $1.2 million, $1.2 million, and $1.1 million in 2008, 2007, and 2006, respectively.
 
10.   Stock-based Compensation
 
The Company’s equity incentive program is a long-term retention program that is intended to attract, retain, and provide incentives for talented employees, consultants, officers, and directors, and to align stockholder and employee interests. Essentially all of the Company’s employees participate in the equity incentive program. The Company may grant options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, restricted stock units (“RSU’s”), performance shares, performance units, and other stock-based or cash-based awards to employees, directors, and consultants. Since inception, the Company has approved programs that allow the recipient the right to purchase up to 19,434,593 shares of its common stock. Under these programs, stock options may be granted at prices not less than the fair market value on the date of grant for incentive stock options and not less than 85% of fair market value on the date of grant for nonstatutory stock options. These options generally vest over 4 years. RSU’s generally vest over 3 years and expire 10 years from the date of grant. On December 31, 2008, 2,638,924 shares of common stock were available for grant, and there were 7,009,667 options to purchase shares of common stock outstanding, as well as 34,500 RSU’s outstanding.
 
On June 6, 2007, the Company’s stockholders approved the Immersion Corporation 2007 Equity Incentive Plan (the “2007 Plan”). The 2007 Plan replaced the Company’s 1997 Stock Option Plan (the “1997 Plan”). Effective June 6, 2007, the 1997 Plan was terminated. Under the 2007 Plan, the Company may grant stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, RSU’s, performance shares, performance units, and other stock-based or cash-based awards to employees and consultants. The 2007 Plan also authorizes the grant of awards of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock, and restricted stock units to non-employee members of the Company’s Board of Directors and deferred compensation awards to officers, directors, and certain management or highly compensated employees. The 2007 Plan authorizes the issuance of 2,303,232 shares of the Company’s common stock, and up to an additional 1,000,000 shares subject to awards that remain outstanding under the 1997 Plan as of June 6, 2007 and which subsequently terminate without having been exercised or which are forfeited to the Company.
 
On April 30, 2008, the Company’s Board of Directors approved the issuance of equity awards under the Immersion Corporation 2008 Employment Inducement Award Plan (the “2008 Plan”). Under the 2008 Plan, the Company may issue awards in the form of stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock purchase rights, restricted stock bonuses, restricted stock units (“RSU’s”), performance shares, performance units, deferred compensation awards, and other cash and stock awards. Such awards may be granted to new employees who had not previously been a director or former employees or directors whose period of service was followed by a bona-fide period of non-employment.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
 
The Company has an ESPP. Under the ESPP, eligible employees may purchase common stock through payroll deductions at a purchase price of 85% of the lower of the fair market value of the Company’s stock at the beginning of the offering period or the purchase date. Participants may not purchase more than 2,000 shares in a six-month offering period or purchase stock having a value greater than $25,000 in any calendar year as measured at the beginning of the offering period. A total of 500,000 shares of common stock are reserved for the issuance under the ESPP plus an automatic annual increase on each January 1 hereafter through January 1, 2010 by an amount equal to the lesser of 500,000 shares per year or a number of shares determined by the Board of Directors. As of December 31, 2008, 397,813 shares had been purchased since the inception of the ESPP. Under SFAS No. 123R, the ESPP is considered a compensatory plan and the Company is required to recognize compensation cost related to the fair value of common stock purchased under the ESPP.
 
The Company did not modify its ESPP during the year ended December 31, 2008.
 
General Stock Option Information
 
The following table sets forth the summary of option activity under the Company’s stock option program:
 
                                 
                Weighted
       
                Average
       
          Weighted
    Remaining
    Aggregate
 
    Number
    Average
    Contractual
    Intrinsic
 
    of Shares     Exercise Price     Term     Value  
                (In years)        
 
Outstanding at January 1, 2006 (4,595,431 exercisable at a weighted average price of $8.03 per share)
    7,340,796       7.24                  
Granted (weighted average fair value of $4.31 per share)
    1,224,453       6.90                  
Exercised
    (389,810 )     2.59                  
Cancelled
    (590,016 )     7.64                  
Outstanding at December 31, 2006 (5,403,314 exercisable at a weighted average price of $7.65 per share)
    7,585,423       7.40                  
Granted (weighted average fair value of $6.43 per share)
    1,442,458       10.58                  
Exercised(1)
    (2,610,856 )     4.87                  
Cancelled
    (402,655 )     9.58                  
Outstanding at December 31, 2007 (3,774,245 exercisable at a weighted average price of $9.11 per share)
    6,014,370       9.11                  
Granted (weighted average fair value of $4.84 per share)
    2,438,775       8.43                  
Exercised
    (237,037 )     5.29                  
Cancelled
    (1,206,441 )     8.35                  
Outstanding at December 31, 2008
    7,009,667     $ 9.13       5.49     $ 1.9 million  
                                 
Exercisable at December 31, 2008
    4,055,180     $ 9.35       3.48     $ 1.8 million  
                                 
 
 
(1) There were 1,283 options that net settled in 2007.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
 
The number of shares subject to options expected to vest as of December 31, 2008 is approximately 5.9 million.
 
The aggregate intrinsic value is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the underlying awards and the quoted price of the Company’s common stock for the options that were in-the-money at December 31, 2008. The aggregate intrinsic value of options exercised under the Company’s stock option plans, determined as of the date of option exercise was $786,800 for the year ended December 31, 2008.
 
Additional information regarding options outstanding as of December 31, 2008 is as follows:
 
                                               
      Options Outstanding     Options Exercisable  
            Weighted
                   
            Average
    Weighted
          Weighted
 
            Remaining
    Average
          Average
 
      Number
    Contractual
    Exercise
    Number
    Exercise
 
Range of Exercise Prices
    Outstanding     Life (Years)     Price     Exercisable     Price  
 
$ 1.20  — $ 5.91       704,756       5.11     $ 3.23       576,713     $ 2.79  
  5.92  —  6.79       815,212       6.45       6.22       489,468       6.32  
  6.81  —  7.00       1,038,774       5.33       6.97       907,081       6.98  
  7.02  —  8.61       1,199,991       7.25       8.18       275,706       7.85  
  8.67  —  9.01       788,778       1.54       8.99       570,321       8.98  
  9.04  —  9.24       772,671       5.31       9.09       471,121       9.13  
  9.47  —  9.81       704,000       9.11       9.81       1,000       9.47  
  10.00  — 17.27       721,051       4.63       13.81       499,336       13.30  
  23.13  — 34.75       239,548       1.15       31.58       239,548       31.58  
  43.25  — 43.25       24,886       1.28       43.25       24,886       43.25  
                                               
$ 1.20  — $43.25       7,009,667       5.49     $ 9.13       4,055,180     $ 9.35  
                                               
 
Restricted Stock Units
 
Restricted stock unit activity for the twelve months ended December 31, 2008 is as follows:
 
                         
          Weighted
       
          Average
       
    Number
    Remaining
    Aggregate
 
    of Shares     Contractual Life     Intrinsic Value  
 
Beginning balance at December 31, 2007
                       
Awarded
    34,500                  
Released
                     
Forfeited
                     
                         
Ending Balance at December 31, 2008
    34,500       1.33     $ 203,205  
                         
Expected to Vest
    26,098       1.33     $ 153,715  
                         
 
The aggregate intrinsic value is calculated as the market value as of the end of the reporting period.
 
Stock-based Compensation
 
Valuation and amortization method  — The Company uses the Black-Scholes-Merton option pricing model (“Black-Scholes model”), single-option approach to determine the fair value of stock options and ESPP shares. All share-based payment awards are amortized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service periods of the awards, which are generally the vesting periods. The determination of the fair value of stock-based payment


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by the Company’s stock price as well as assumptions regarding a number of complex and subjective variables. These variables include actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors, the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, risk-free interest rate, and expected dividends.
 
Expected term  — The Company estimates the expected term of options granted by calculating the average term from the Company’s historical stock option exercise experience. The expected term of ESPP shares is the length of the offering period. The Company used the simplified method as prescribed by SAB No. 107 for options granted prior to December 31, 2007.
 
Expected volatility  — The Company estimates the volatility of its common stock taking into consideration its historical stock price movement, the volatility of stock prices of companies of similar size with similar businesses, if any, and its expected future stock price trends based on known or anticipated events.
 
Risk-free interest rate  — The Company bases the risk-free interest rate that it uses in the option pricing model on U.S. Treasury zero-coupon issues with remaining terms similar to the expected term on the options.
 
Expected dividend  — The Company does not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future and therefore uses an expected dividend yield of zero in the option-pricing model.
 
Forfeitures  — The Company is required to estimate future forfeitures at the time of grant and revise those estimates in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. The Company uses historical data to estimate pre-vesting option forfeitures and records stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest.
 
The assumptions used to value option grants and shares under the ESPP are as follows:
 
                                                 
    Options     Employee Stock Purchase Plan  
    2008     2007     2006     2008     2007     2006  
 
Expected life (in years)
    5.5       6.25       6.25       0.5       0.5       0.5  
Interest rate
    2.7 %     4.5 %     4.8 %     2.0 %     5.1 %     4.9 %
Volatility
    63 %     60 %     62 %     88 %     50 %     51 %
Dividend yield
                                   
 
Total stock-based compensation recognized in the consolidated statements of operations is as follows:
 
                 
    Year Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands)  
 
Income Statement Classifications
               
Cost of product sales
  $ 158     $ 101  
Sales and marketing
    1,073       850  
Research and development
    893       636  
General and administrative
    1,933       1,142  
                 
Total
  $ 4,058     $ 2,729  
                 
 
SFAS No. 123R requires the benefits of tax deductions in excess of recognized compensation expense to be reported as a financing cash flow, rather than as an operating cash flow. This requirement will reduce net operating cash flows and increase net financing cash flows in periods after adoption. For the year ended December 31, 2008, and 2007, the Company recorded $200,000 and $13.5 million, respectively, of excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The Company has calculated an additional paid-in capital (“APIC”) pool pursuant to the provisions of SFAS No. 123R. The APIC pool represents the excess tax benefits related to stock-based compensation that are available to absorb future tax deficiencies. The Company includes only those excess tax benefits that have been realized in accordance with SFAS No. 109, “Accounting for Income Taxes.” If the amount of future tax deficiencies is greater than the available APIC pool, the Company will record the excess as income tax expense in its consolidated statements of operations.
 
As of December 31, 2008, there was $10.7 million of unrecognized compensation cost, adjusted for estimated forfeitures, related to non-vested stock options and RSUs granted to the Company’s employees and directors. This cost will be recognized over an estimated weighted-average period of approximately 2.90 years for options and 2.10 years for RSUs. Total unrecognized compensation cost will be adjusted for future changes in estimated forfeitures.
 
Warrants
 
On December 23, 2004, the Company, in conjunction with the 5% Convertible Debentures (see Note 7), issued warrants to purchase an aggregate of 426,951 shares of its common stock at an exercise price of $7.0265 per share. The warrants may be exercised at any time prior to 5:00 p.m. Eastern time, on December 23, 2009. Any warrants not exercised prior to such time will expire.
 
Stock Repurchase Program
 
On November 1, 2007, the Company announced its Board of Directors’ authorized the repurchase of up to $50 million of the Company’s common stock. The Company may repurchase its stock for cash in the open market in accordance with applicable securities laws. The timing of and amount of any stock repurchase will depend on share price, corporate and regulatory requirements, economic and market conditions, and other factors. The stock repurchase authorization has no expiration date, does not require the Company to repurchase a specific number of shares, and may be modified, suspended, or discontinued at any time.
 
During the twelve months ended December 31, 2008, the Company repurchased 2.8 million shares for $18.4 million at an average cost of $6.60 through open market repurchases. This amount is classified as treasury stock on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet.
 
11.   Litigation Settlement, Conclusions, and Patent License
 
In 2003, the Company executed a series of agreements with Microsoft that provided for settlement of its lawsuit against Microsoft as well as various licensing, sublicensing, and equity and financing arrangements. Under the terms of these agreements, in the event that the Company elected to settle the action in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California entitled Immersion Corporation v. Sony Computer Entertainment of America, Inc., Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. and Microsoft Corporation, Case No. C02-00710 CW (WDB), as such action pertains to Sony Computer Entertainment, and grant certain rights, the Company would be obligated to pay Microsoft a minimum of $15.0 million for amounts up to $100.0 million received from Sony Computer Entertainment, plus 25% of amounts over $100.0 million up to $150.0 million, and 17.5% of amounts over $150.0 million. The Company determined that the conclusion of its litigation with Sony Computer Entertainment did not trigger any payment obligations under its Microsoft agreements. Accordingly, the liability of $15.0 million that was in the financial statements at December 31, 2006 was extinguished, and the Company accounted for this sum during 2007 as litigation conclusions and patent license income. However, on June 18, 2007, Microsoft filed a complaint against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington alleging one claim for breach of a contract. Microsoft alleged that the Company breached a “Sublicense Agreement” executed in connection with the parties’ settlement in 2003 of the Company’s claims of patent infringement against Microsoft. The complaint alleged that Microsoft was entitled to payments that Microsoft contends are due under the Sublicense Agreement as a result of Sony Computer Entertainment’s satisfaction of the judgment in the Company’s lawsuit


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
against Sony Computer Entertainment and payment of other sums to the Company. In a letter sent to the Company dated May 1, 2007, Microsoft stated that it believed the Company owed Microsoft at least $27.5 million, an amount that was subsequently increased to $35.6 million. Although the company disputed Microsoft’s allegations, on August 25, 2008 the parties agreed to settle all claims. The Company had made no offers to settle prior to August 25, 2008. Under the terms of the settlement, the Company paid Microsoft $20.8 million in October 2008.
 
In March 2007, the Company’s patent infringement litigation with Sony Computer Entertainment concluded. Sony Computer Entertainment satisfied the judgment against it from the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, which included damages, pre-judgment interest, costs and interest totaling $97.3 million, along with compulsory license fees already paid to the Company of $30.6 million and interest earned on these fees of $1.8 million. As of March 19, 2007, the Company and Sony Computer Entertainment entered into an agreement whereby the Company granted Sony Computer Entertainment and certain of its affiliates a worldwide, non-transferable, non-exclusive license under the Company’s patents that have issued, may issue, or claim a priority date before March 2017 for the going forward use, development, manufacture, sale, lease, importation, and distribution of Sony Computer Entertainment’s current and past PlayStation and related products. The license does not cover adult, foundry, medical, automotive, industrial, mobility, or gambling products. Subject to the terms of the agreement, the Company also granted Sony Computer Entertainment and certain of its affiliates certain other licenses (relating to PlayStation games, backward compatibility of future consoles, and the use of their licensed products with certain third party products), an option to obtain licenses in the future with respect to future gaming products and certain releases and covenants not to sue. Sony Computer Entertainment granted the Company certain covenants not to sue and agreed to pay the Company twelve quarterly installments of $1.875 million (for a total of $22.5 million) beginning on March 31, 2007 and ending on December 31, 2009, and may pay the Company certain other fees and royalty amounts. In total, the Company will receive a minimum of $152.2 million through the conclusion of the litigation and the business agreement. In accordance with the guidance from EITF No. 00-21, the Company has allocated the present value of the total payments, equal to $149.9 million, between each element based on their relative fair values. Under this allocation, the Company recorded $119.9 million as litigation conclusions and patent license income, and the remaining $30.0 million is allocated to deferred license revenue to the extent payment is received in advance of revenue recognition. Such deferred revenue was $18.4 million at December 31, 2008. The Company recorded $2.4 million and $3.0 million as revenue for the years ended December 31, 2007, and 2008, respectively. On December 31, 2008, the Company had recorded $5.4 million of the $30.0 million as revenue and will record the remaining $24.6 million as revenue, on a straight-line basis, over the remaining capture period of the patents licensed, ending March 19, 2017. The Company has accounted for future payments in accordance with Accounting Principles Board Opinion No. 21 (“ABP No. 21”). Under APB No. 21, the Company determined the present value of the $22.5 million future payments to equal $20.2 million. The Company is accounting for the difference of $2.3 million as interest income as each $1.875 million quarterly payment installment becomes due. This amount is accounted for at December 31, 2008 in deferred revenue.
 
On October 20, 2004, Internet Services LLC (“ISLLC”) filed claims against the Company in its lawsuit against Sony Computer Entertainment in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, alleging that the Company breached a contract with ISLLC by suing Sony Computer Entertainment for patent infringement relating to haptically-enabled software whose topics or images are allegedly age-restricted, for judicial apportionment of damages between ISLLC and the Company of the damages awarded by the jury, and for a judicial declaration with respect to ISLLC’s rights and duties under agreements with the Company. On December 29, 2004, the District Court issued an order dismissing ISLLC’s claims against Sony Computer Entertainment with prejudice and dismissing ISLLC’s claims against the Company without prejudice to ISLLC. On January 12, 2005, ISLLC filed Amended Cross-Claims and Counterclaims against the Company that contained similar claims. On March 24, 2005, the District Court again dismissed certain of these claims with prejudice and dismissed the other claims without prejudice.
 
On February 8, 2006, ISLLC filed a lawsuit against the Company in the Superior Court of Santa Clara County. ISLLC’s complaint sought a share of the damages awarded to the Company in the Sony litigation and of the


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
Microsoft settlement proceeds, and generally restated the claims already adjudicated by the District Court. On March 16, 2006, the Company answered the complaint, cross claimed for declaratory relief, breach of contract by ISLLC, and for rescission of the contract, and removed the lawsuit to federal court. The case was assigned to Judge Wilken in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California as a case related to the previous proceedings involving Sony Computer Entertainment and ISLLC. On May 10, 2007, ISLLC filed a motion in the District Court to remand its latest action to the Superior Court, or in the alternative, for leave to file an amended complaint. The Company opposed ISLLC’s motion, and cross-moved for judgment on the pleadings. On June 26, 2007, the District Court ruled on the motions, denying ISLLC’s motion to remand or for leave to file an amended complaint, and granting in part the Company’s motion for judgment on the pleadings. The District Court also dismissed one of ISLLC’s claims. However, on May 16, 2008, the District Court entered an order granting the Company’s motion for summary judgment on all of ISLLC’s claims, as well as the Company’s counterclaim for declaratory relief. As a result, the only claims remaining in the action were the Company’s counterclaims against ISLLC. On August 22, 2008, the Company settled its counterclaims against ISLLC and amended the terms of its existing business agreement with ISLLC. On August 25, 2008, the District Court entered an order dismissing the Company’s counterclaims and closed the case. For the year ended December 31, 2008, the Company recognized $1.1 million in royalty and license revenue as of result of this settlement with ISLLC.
 
On September 24, 2004, the Company filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California a complaint for patent infringement against Performance Designed Products (“PDP”) (formerly Electro Source LLC). On February 28, 2006, the Company announced that it had settled its legal differences with PDP and the Company and PDP agreed to dismiss all claims and counterclaims relating to this matter. In addition to the Confidential Settlement Agreement, PDP entered into a worldwide license to the Company’s patents for vibro-tactile devices in the consumer gaming peripheral field of use under which PDP makes royalty payments to the Company based on sales by PDP of spinning mass vibro-tactile gamepads, steering wheels, and other game controllers for dedicated gaming consoles. During 2006, PDP paid the Company $1.7 million which was recorded as litigation conclusions and patent license income.
 
12.   Restructuring Costs
 
On November 17, 2008, the Company announced that it will divest its 3D product line which is part of the Touch segment. The Company’s 3D product line consists of a variety of products in the area of 3D digitizing, 3D measurement and inspection, and 3D interaction and includes products such as MicroScribe digitizers, CyberGlove family of products and a SoftMouse 3D positioning device. The sales price was not material to our financial condition or results of operations. The Company intends to cease operations of the 3D product line by the end of the first quarter of 2009. The Company will dispose of assets relating to the 3D product line if it is unable to find an acceptable buyer for any or all of those assets. Approximately 13 people associated with the 3D product line have been terminated and will no longer be on the Company’s payroll by the end of the first quarter of 2009. In addition at the end of the fourth quarter of 2008, there have been other reorganizations in the Company’s Touch segment causing certain additional workforce reductions.
 
The Company accounts for restructuring costs in accordance with SFAS No. 144, “Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets” and SFAS No. 146, “Accounting for Costs Associated with Exit of Disposal Activities”. There were no restructuring charges incurred in the years ended 2006 or 2007. The following


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
table sets forth the one-time charges that are included in the restructuring line on the Company’s Consolidated Statement of Operations for the year ended December 31, 2008:
 
                                 
          December 31,
 
    Year Ended December 31, 2008     2008  
          Deduct Cash
    Non-Cash
    Restructuring
 
    Add Charges     Payments     Expense     Reserves  
 
3D Product Workforce Reductions
  $ 105     $     $     $ 105  
Other Workforce Reductions
    142                   142  
Asset Impairments
    275             275        
Other
    15                   15  
                                 
    $ 537     $     $ 275     $ 262  
                                 
 
Workforce reductions
 
The Company recorded restructuring charges of $105,000 consisting of severance benefits paid as the result of the reduction of workforce due to the divesting of the 3D product line. The Company also recorded restructuring charges of $142,000 consisting of severance benefits paid as the result of the reduction of workforce due to business changes in the Company’s Touch segment. Workforce reduction costs are included in accrued compensation on the Company’s balance sheet. All of the severance benefits are expected to be paid in the first quarter of 2009 with the exception of certain COBRA costs that will be paid by the end of 2009.
 
Asset Impairments
 
Asset impairments contained in restructuring charges include reserves taken against capitalized patent costs of $255,000 and fixed assets write-offs of $20,000 due to the divesting of the 3D product line. The Company also took an additional inventory impairment charge of $2.0 million of the 3D product inventory that is included in cost of product sales.
 
13.   Income Taxes
 
For the years ended December 31, 2008, 2007, and 2006, the Company recorded provision for income taxes of $5.2 million, $13.5 million, and $144,000, respectively, yielding effective tax rates of 12.2%, 10.3%, and 1.4%, respectively. The 2008 provision for income tax resulted from recording a valuation allowance on specific deferred tax assets and foreign withholding tax expense. The 2007 provision for income tax was based on federal and state regular income tax payable on taxable income and foreign withholding tax expense. The 2006 provision for income tax was based on federal and state alternative minimum income tax payable and foreign withholding tax expense.
 
For 2008, the Company reported pre-tax book income (loss) of ($42.5) million primarily due to the litigation conclusion and settlement of its lawsuit against Microsoft. For 2007 and 2006, the Company reported pre-tax book income (loss) of $130.5 million and ($10.3) million.
 
The domestic and foreign components of income(loss) before provision for income taxes were as follows:
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands)  
 
Domestic
  $ (42,797 )   $ 130,374     $ (8,823 )
Foreign
    286       132       (1,457 )
                         
Total
  $ (42,511 )   $ 130,506     $ (10,280 )
                         


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The provision for income taxes consisted of the following:
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands)  
 
Current:
                       
United States federal
  $ (2,799 )   $ 16,471     $ 70  
Foreign
    443       126       74  
State and local
    148       4,273        
                         
Total current
    (2,208 )     20,870       144  
                         
Deferred:
                       
United States federal
    6,583       (6,583 )      
Foreign
                 
State and local
    799       (799 )      
                         
Total deferred
    7,382       (7,382 )      
                         
    $ 5,174     $ 13,488     $ 144  
                         
 
The Company’s income tax receivable for federal purposes had been increased by the tax benefits from employee stock options. The net tax benefits from employee stock option transactions were $97,000 for 2008 and were reflected as an increase to additional paid-in capital in the Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit). The net tax benefits from employee stock options for 2007 were $14.7 million and for 2006 were insignificant. The Company includes only the direct tax effects of employee stock incentive plans in calculating this increase to additional paid-in capital.
 
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the amounts used for income tax purposes, tax losses, and credit carryforwards. Significant components of the net deferred tax assets and liabilities consisted of:
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2007  
    (In thousands)  
 
Deferred tax assets:
               
Net operating loss carryforwards
  $ 12,083     $ 1,747  
State income taxes
    1       781  
Deferred revenue
    5,933       5,182  
Research and development credits
    4,088       1,214  
Reserves and accruals recognized in different periods
    3,458       1,417  
Basis difference in investment
    1,255       1,276  
Capitalized R&D expenses
    1,355       1,502  
Other
    1       273  
                 
Total deferred tax assets
    28,174       13,392  
Deferred tax liabilities:
               
Depreciation and amortization
    (3,626 )     (2,503 )
Valuation allowance
    (24,548 )     (3,507 )
                 
Net deferred tax assets
  $     $ 7,382  
                 


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
As of December 31, 2008, the net operating loss carryforwards for federal and state income tax purposes were approximately $28.1 million and $37.2 million, respectively. The federal net operating losses expire between 2019 and 2028 and the state net operating losses begin to expire in 2029. As of December 31, 2008, the Company had federal and state tax credit carryforwards of approximately $3.4 million and $33,000, respectively, available to offset future taxable income. The federal credit carryforwards will expire between 2009 and 2028 and the California tax credits will carryforward indefinitely. In addition, as of December 31, 2008, the Company has Canadian research and development credit carryforwards of $1.0 million, which will expire at various dates through 2028. Approximately $126,000 of the state net operating loss carryforwards represent the stock option deduction arising from activity under the Company’s stock option plan, the benefit of which will increase additional paid-in-capital when realized. These operating loss and credits carryforwards have not been reviewed by the relevant tax authorities and could be subject to adjustment upon examinations.
 
During 2008, the Company recorded a valuation allowance for the entire deferred tax asset as a result of uncertainties regarding the realization of the asset balance due to losses in fiscal 2008, the variability of operating results, and near term projected results. In the event that the Company determines the deferred tax asset are realizable, an adjustment to the valuation allowance may increase income in the period such determination is made. The valuation allowance does not impact the Company’s ability to utilize the underlying net operating loss carryforwards.
 
Utilization of a portion of the Company’s federal net operating loss carryforward is limited in accordance with IRC Section 382, due to an ownership change that occurred during 1999. Utilization of these losses is limited to approximately $1.1 million annually. The remaining unused loss of $2.8 million will expire between 2019 and 2020, if not utilized. During 2005, the Company evaluated ownership changes from 1999 to 2004 and determined that there were no further limitations on the Company’s net operating loss carryforwards.
 
For purposes of the reconciliation between the provision for (benefit from) income taxes at the statutory rate and the effective tax rate, a national U.S. 35% rate is applied as follows:
 
                         
    2008     2007     2006  
 
Federal statutory tax rate
    (35.0 )%     35.0 %     (35.0 )%
State taxes, net of federal benefit
    (3.5 )     3.9       (5.8 )
Non-deductible interest
    0.0       0.3       8.8  
Stock compensation expense
    0.9       0.2       4.0  
Other
    (0.5 )     (0.3 )     (0.7 )
Valuation allowance
    50.3       (28.8 )     30.1  
                         
Effective tax rate
    12.2 %     10.3 %     1.4 %
                         
 
Undistributed earnings of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are considered to be indefinitely reinvested and accordingly, no provision for federal and state income taxes has been provided thereon. Upon distribution of those earnings in the form of dividends or otherwise, the Company would be subject to both U.S. income taxes (subject to an adjustment for foreign tax credits) and withholding taxes payable to various foreign countries.
 
Effective January 1, 2007, the Company adopted the provision of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Interpretation No. 48, “Accounting for Uncertain Income Taxes — An interpretation of FASB Statement No. 109” (“FIN 48”). FIN 48 prescribes a comprehensive model for how companies should recognize, measure, present and disclose in their financial statements uncertain tax positions taken or expected to be taken on a tax return. Under FIN 48, tax positions must initially be recognized in the financial statements when it is more likely than not the position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities. Such tax positions must initially and subsequently be measured as the largest amount of tax benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the tax authority assuming full knowledge of the position and relevant facts. The adoption of FIN 48 did not have an impact on stockholders’ equity as the Company had a full valuation


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
allowance at the time of adoption. A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits is as follows:
 
         
    Unrecognized
 
    Tax Benefits  
    (In thousands)  
 
Balance at January 1, 2008
  $ 628  
Gross increases for tax positions of prior years
     
Gross decreases for tax positions of prior years
     
Settlements
     
Lapse of statute of limitations
     
Balance at December 31, 2008
  $ 628  
         
 
The unrecognized tax benefits relate primarily to federal and state research and development credits. The Company’s policy is to account for interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions as a component of income tax expense. As of December 31, 2008, the Company accrued interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions in the amount of $15,000. The Company does not expect any material changes to its liability for unrecognized income tax benefits during the next 12 months. As of December 31, 2008, the total amount of unrecognized tax benefits that would affect the Company’s effective tax rate, if recognized, is $212,000.
 
Because the Company has net operating loss and credit carryforwards, there are open statutes of limitations in which federal, state and foreign taxing authorities may examine the Company’s tax returns for all years from 1993 through the current period.
 
14.   Net Income (Loss) Per Share
 
The following is a reconciliation of the numerators and denominators used in computing basic and diluted net loss per share:
 
                         
    Years Ended December 31,  
    2008     2007     2006  
    (In thousands, except per share amounts)  
 
Numerator:
                       
Net income (loss) used in computing basic net income (loss) per share
  $ (47,685 )   $ 117,018     $ (10,424 )
Interest on 5% Convertible Debentures
          348        
                         
Net income (loss) used in computing diluted net income (loss) per share
  $ (47,685 )   $ 117,366     $ (10,424 )
                         
Denominator:
                       
Shares used in computation of basic net income (loss) per share (weighted average common shares outstanding)
    29,575       27,662       24,556  
Dilutive potential common shares:
                       
Stock options
          1,989        
Warrants
          305        
5% Convertible Debentures
          1,711        
Shares used in computation of diluted net income (loss) per share
    29,575       31,667       24,556  
                         
Basic net income (loss) per share
  $ (1.61 )   $ 4.23     $ (0.42 )
                         
Diluted net income (loss) per share
  $ (1.61 )   $ 3.71     $ (0.42 )
                         


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
For the year ended December 31, 2007, options and warrants to purchase approximately 1.4 million shares of common stock with exercise prices greater than the average fair market value of the Company’s stock of $12.39 were not included in the calculation because the effect would have been anti-dilutive.
 
As of December 31, 2008 and 2006, the Company had securities outstanding that could potentially dilute basic earnings per share in the future, but were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share in the periods presented since their effect would have been anti-dilutive. These outstanding securities consisted of the following:
 
                 
    December 31,  
    2008     2006  
 
Outstanding stock options
    7,009,667       7,585,423  
Unvested Restricted Stock Units
    34,500        
Warrants
    434,332       808,762  
5% Senior Subordinated Convertible Debentures
          2,846,363  
 
15.   Employee Benefit Plan
 
The Company has a 401(k) tax-deferred savings plan under which eligible employees may elect to have a portion of their salary deferred and contributed to the 401(k) plan. Contributions may be made by the Company at the discretion of the Board of Directors. Beginning in January 2008, the Company matched 25% of the employee’s contribution up to $2,000 for the year. The Company contributed approximately $149,000 during the year ended December 31, 2008. The Company did not make any contributions during the years ended December 31, 2007 or 2006.
 
16.   Contingencies
 
In re Immersion Corporation
 
The Company is involved in legal proceedings relating to a class action lawsuit filed on November 9, 2001 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, In re Immersion Corporation Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, No. Civ. 01-9975 (S.D.N.Y.), related to In re Initial Public Offering Securities Litigation, No. 21 MC 92 (S.D.N.Y.). The named defendants are the Company and three of its current or former officers or directors (the “Immersion Defendants”), and certain underwriters of its November 12, 1999 initial public offering (“IPO”). Subsequently, two of the individual defendants stipulated to a dismissal without prejudice.
 
The operative amended complaint is brought on purported behalf of all persons who purchased the Company’s common stock from the date of the Company’s IPO through December 6, 2000. It alleges liability under Sections 11 and 15 of the Securities Act of 1933 and Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, on the grounds that the registration statement for the IPO did not disclose that: (1) the underwriters agreed to allow certain customers to purchase shares in the IPO in exchange for excess commissions to be paid to the underwriters; and (2) the underwriters arranged for certain customers to purchase additional shares in the aftermarket at predetermined prices. The complaint also appears to allege that false or misleading analyst reports were issued. The complaint does not claim any specific amount of damages.
 
Similar allegations were made in other lawsuits challenging over 300 other initial public offerings and follow-on offerings conducted in 1999 and 2000. The cases were consolidated for pretrial purposes. On February 19, 2003, the District Court ruled on all defendants’ motions to dismiss. The motion was denied as to claims under the Securities Act of 1933 in the case involving Immersion as well as in all other cases (except for 10 cases). The motion was denied as to the claim under Section 10(b) as to the Company, on the basis that the complaint alleged that the Company had made acquisition(s) following the IPO. The motion was granted as to the claim under Section 10(b), but denied as to the claim under Section 20(a), as to the remaining individual defendant.


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IMMERSION CORPORATION
 
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS — (Continued)
 
The Company and most of the issuer defendants had settled with the plaintiffs. In September 2005, the District Court granted preliminary approval of the settlement. The District Court held a hearing to consider final approval of the settlement on April 24, 2006, and took the matter under submission. Subsequently, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit vacated the class certification of plaintiffs’ claims against the underwriters in six cases designated as focus or test cases. Thereafter, the District Court ordered a stay of all proceedings in all of the lawsuits pending the outcome of plaintiffs’ petition to the Second Circuit for rehearing en banc and resolution of the class certification issue. On April 6, 2007, the Second Circuit denied plaintiffs’ petition for rehearing, but clarified that the plaintiffs may seek to certify a more limited class in the District Court. Accordingly, the parties withdrew the prior settlement, and plaintiffs filed an amended complaint in attempt to comply with the Second Circuit’s ruling. On March 26, 2008, the District Court denied in part and granted in part the motions to dismiss the focus cases on substantially the same grounds as set forth in its prior opinion.
 
In September 2008, all of the parties to the lawsuits reached a settlement, subject to documentation and approval of the District Court. As before, the Immersion Defendants would not be required to contribute to the settlement. Subsequently, an underwriter defendant filed for bankruptcy and other underwriter defendants were acquired. We believe that the settlement remains in place, and that final documentation will be presented to the District Court by April 1, 2009. If the settlement is not consummated and then approved by the District Court, we intend to defend the lawsuit vigorously.
 
Other Contingencies
 
From time to time, the Company receives claims from third parties asserting that the Company’s technologies, or those of its licensees, infringe on the other parties’ intellectual property rights. Management believes that these claims are without merit. Additionally, periodically, the Company is involved in routine legal matters and contractual disputes incidental to its normal operations. In management’s opinion, the resolution of such matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or liquidity.
 
In the normal course of business, the Company provides indemnifications of varying scope to customers against claims of intellectual property infringement made by third parties arising from the use of the Company’s intellectual property, technology, or products. Historically, costs related to these guarantees have not been significant, and the Company is unable to estimate the maximum potential impact of these guarantees on its future results of operations.
 
As permitted under Delaware law, the Company has agreements whereby it indemnifies its officers and directors for certain events or occurrences while the officer or director is, or was, serving at its request in such capacity. The term of the indemnification period is for the officer’s or director’s lifetime. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these indemnification agreements is unlimited; however, the Company currently has director and officer insurance coverage that limits its exposure and enables it to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. Management believes the estimated fair value of these indemnification agreements in excess of applicable insurance coverage is indeterminable.
 
17.   Segment Reporting, Geographic Information, and Significant Customers